Content:

EOS – Education and Outreach Sessions

EOS3.2 – Climate literacy: Learning, education, methods and roadmaps

A recent geoscience education project, undertaken in Irish secondary schools using a children's rights based methodology that incorporated student voice in the design, implementation, and analysis, began with a focus on "Earth Science" but ended, through the influence of the student co-researchers, with a focus on climate literacy. Teenagers have seen the writing on the wall, as sea levels and global temperatures rise, and traditional career paths and global superpowers fall. 

Following on from the aforementioned project, an international comparative study currently ongoing seeks to establish global best practice in geoscience education and climate literacy, with the aim of facilitating improvement in the Irish context. Research suggests Irish school students are eager to learn about the Earth, but are frustrated by classes on climate change that are not actionable and do not address the systemic causes of the climate catastrophe. There is an appetite among teenagers and young people to learn more, but simply adding more classes or more class time isn't sufficient, the classes must be appropriately challenging, honest, and action-focused. This ongoing research seeks to provide guidance and tools to achieve that in Irish formal and informal education. 

Thus, in this presentation, the findings of a recent geoscience and climate change education project will be discussed in the context of how the expressed needs and opinions of the participating students have impacted the ongoing international comparative study seeking to improve Ireland's geoscience and climate literacy.

How to cite: Neenan, E. E.: Rising To The Challenge: Addressing climate literacy in Ireland through the lens of student rights, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12669, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12669, 2021.

EGU21-22 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

Building Climate Change into Weather and Climate Teaching

Sylvia Knight

The Royal Meteorological Society believes that every student should leave school with the basic climate literacy that would enable them to engage with the messages put forward by the media or politicians, or to make informed decisions about their own opportunities and responsibilities.

Through 2019/ 2020, students, the media and academics became increasingly vocal in demanding that more climate change be taught in UK schools. With a rigid National Curriculum and exam specifications, part of the problem lies in students (and teachers) not realising the relevance of concepts and processes they have actually been taught in school to understanding climate change and the broad spectrum of impacts, mitigation and adaptation issues associated with it. In addition, weather and climate are commonly perceived as being amongst the harder topics in geography and so, even when they are taught at all, geography teachers are used to teaching weather, climate and climate change separately, not highlighting the close ties and links between the topics.

With this in mind, the Royal Meteorological Society has developed a full scheme of work for 11-14 year old students which integrates climate change thinking into weather and climate lessons. Hard copy teacher’s guides have been distributed to schools throughout the UK, free of charge, with associated teaching resources being made available online. Recognising the importance of teacher understanding, the resources are accompanied by CPD materials for teachers.

In 2021, we hope to build on this work by developing resources and teacher training materials for science teachers and students.

How to cite: Knight, S.: Building Climate Change into Weather and Climate Teaching, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-22, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-22, 2021.

EGU21-68 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

A psychological tool for helping the public feel invested in climate change.

Haydon Mort

A psychological tool for helping the public feel invested in climate change.

Talking to audiences about climate change in a way that helps them feel empowered is a challenge that many geoscientists feel ill-equipped to tackle. In this presentation, I demonstrate how using a blend of reverse psychology and cognitive dissonance can lead to an audience feeling highly activated and motivated. 

I used data and presentation techniques to trick an audience into firmly believing that climate change is a hoax - and then revealed the hoax. I was able to use the initial anger and frustration to elicit highly positive states of mind and feelings of personal empowerment. Audiences report a  much higher degree of climate literacy and a greater sense of awareness of their role in the fight again climate change. This strategy also appears to effective in convincing 'climate sceptics' that they are mistaken.

Questionnaires collected after 24 of these presentations reveal 100% of participants left feeling 'invested' in climate change. 95% additionally felt 'motivated to learn more and take action'. When asking sceptical audiences, 85% said that the presentation had forced them to re-evaluate their pre-existing beliefs. 60% said they now felt anthropogenically driven climate change was likely a reality. 100% of sceptics wanted to learn more.

The neurophysiology of our brains explains this data. When paired with strong emotions - positive or negative - information is more likely stored in memory centres. Audiences that already understood climate change to be a threat switch from anxiety/anger /confusion to relief/happiness/wonder. Such a large jump in emotional state triggers a strong dopaminergic system response. By forcing the audience to consider why they were susceptible to the hoax in the first place, the positive mindset makes them feel empowered and eager to learn more.

In the case of climate sceptics; by mirroring their own arguments, I demonstrate empathy by appreciating their perspectives. Whilst the resulting cognitive dissonance of having the hoax 'unmasked' is deeply uncomfortable, I able to convert this strong negative emotion into a positive one. I do this by a) empathising with the discomfort b) showing solidarity with them c) being open about why I used the strategy I did.

In summary, by marrying geocommunication with brain science, we can look forward to exploring more innovative strategies that make members of the public feel more invested and activated.

How to cite: Mort, H.: A psychological tool for helping the public feel invested in climate change., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-68, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-68, 2021.

EGU21-1854 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

E-Learning of meteorological measurements during  the Covid-19 pandemy

Ilaria Cantini, Gabriele Rafanelli, Andrea Rindi, Andrea Antonini, and Luca Bini

During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, Italian schools and Universities were closed. Due to this situation, our research group, that is composed of high school teachers, University researchers and an experimental farmer, with an audience of 15 to 25 years-old students, underwent to a sudden and total change of learning, since the research laboratory shutdown and the construction of our experimental system of meteorological measurements was stopped.

The group had to manage the didactic activity, carrying out a Distance Learning thanks to the technological support of an on-line simulator like IDE-Arduino, thinkercad and circuit simulator LTspice and LUA Compiler, with the support of Thingspeak by Mathlab.  

This situation required to divide the theory that stays behind the meteorological measurements into several different laboratories to propose to students, with reference to their age and their previous competence.

Firstly we had to re-plan some of the electronics contents, trying to include e-laboratory activities, too, with the teacher support, by using the 5E Inquiry methodology. Here we show, as an example of the new educational approach to remote teaching, the practical activity focused on the functioning of components (transducers and actuators) used to build-up a meteorological station. Subsequently, we had to introduce in the meteorological station a data mining system, which would allow data on-line transmission aimed at a qualitative analysis of the experimental data.

The present case study is based on a qualitative analysis of the observed data (fig. 1 a,b,c). The conceptual framework started from the Vygotskijan idea, mediated by information technologies which were useful for socialization and communication.

The didactic methodology and the used ICT, may be a suggestion for the teaching community in order to organize and realize a distance laboratory practice (E-laboratory), besides the traditional methodologies.

How to cite: Cantini, I., Rafanelli, G., Rindi, A., Antonini, A., and Bini, L.: E-Learning of meteorological measurements during  the Covid-19 pandemy, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1854, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-1854, 2021.

EGU21-3041 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

A smörgåsbord of climate literacy methods: Outlines & experiences

Pimnutcha Promduangsri, Pariphat Promduangsri, Farhad Bolouri, Isabel M. Caballero Leiva, Linda Khodja, Estelle Knecht, Fernanda Matsuoka, Riccardo Parigi, and Laksh Sharma

The Earth and humanity face real existential threats.  The problems are well known: global warming, climate change (CC), deforestation, pollution, temperature increase, biodiversity loss and so on.

CC is the most dangerous threat of our time.  It “affects every single living being and every ecological niche, with poorer communities suffering disproportionately” (session abstract).  Action and knowledge are needed to combat this crisis so that future generations are saved.

It is important that people learn about CC and its effects, and then learn how to act.  Climate literacy/learning (CL) is the only way in which people can come to understand and become literate so as to make decisions that are grounded in geoethical principles.  As the session abstract says, “the more people are knowledgeable about the changes affecting their lives, the more they will be able to make informed decisions and to adapt and mitigate”.  

Many CL paths exist, all the way down from masters level courses, through collective initiatives, to individual actions.  In our presentation, we will review a variety of CL actions and methods.  These include:

  • En-ROADS, a simulation model, developed by Climate Interactive, for negotiating scenarios to limit future global warming. 
  • Fridays For Future (FFF), “a global climate strike movement that started in August 2018”.  
  • Online participatory simulation to learn about the effect of CC on the oceans, with people from many countries.
  • PhD programme on CC impacts on natural coastal risks and adaptation pathways for the Mediterranean coast.
  • University courses in environmental science and in ecology.
  • Youth Climate Leaders (YCL), an organisation created by four Brazillain women “to offer solutions to help young people tackle [...] the climate crisis and structural unemployment”.  
  • Associations, experience volunteering.
  • Conferences, participation.
  • Designing, playing and debriefing games.
  • MOOCs, our experience with several online courses on CC and CL.
  • Reading and video documentaries.

We also encourage attendees to share their thoughts and outline their own CL experiences and methods.  We will also attempt to answer questions that the audience may have.

How to cite: Promduangsri, P., Promduangsri, P., Bolouri, F., Caballero Leiva, I. M., Khodja, L., Knecht, E., Matsuoka, F., Parigi, R., and Sharma, L.: A smörgåsbord of climate literacy methods: Outlines & experiences, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3041, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3041, 2021.

EGU21-8229 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

From knowledge to action – can modern and active teaching formats help to bridge the value-action gap among school students and raise their climate-friendly behavior?

Eva Feldbacher, Manuela Waberer, Lena Campostrini, and Gabriele Weigelhofer

Numerous studies and survey results indicate that the majority of the population is aware of climate change and displays worries about it, but only a few people show willingness to change their behavior accordingly and to act more climate-friendly. The discrepancy between knowledge and action (value - action gap) is seen as an obstacle to successful adaptation to climate change, and is particularly pronounced in the young population group. In addition to the lack of a sound basic knowledge, young people above all lack the believe in their own possibilities and the conviction that their actions are enough to achieve something (“bigger than self-dilemma”). 

We initiated a research – education – cooperation project to reach out for school students and tried to motivate them to engage intensively with climate change and to increase their climate-friendly behavior. Modern teaching and learning formats were used in order to contrast to the typical “learning” at school and foster voluntary engagement, to transfer positive messages and solutions, and to emphasize the self - efficacy of their actions. The aim of the project was to examine, whether an active engagement over a prolonged time period with topics around climate change can achieve a greater effect on the understanding of complex relationships and raise climate-friendly behavior more effectively than a short, passive learning phase. With the help of an online questionnaire all involved students answered climate-relevant questions of the categories “behavior, perception and knowledge” before and after the activities.

The questionnaire results revealed that a general knowledge about climate change and climate awareness exist among the students surveyed, even before the project activities. More than 90% believe that every single person can contribute significantly to tackle climate change. However, students had problems with understanding complex relationships and long-term interactions of the consequences of climate change on people and ecosystems. For example, it was difficult for students to correctly estimate virtual water consumption and to see the potential social consequences of climate change.

We believe that modern educational concepts on climate change should foster system understanding and seize on the young people’s positive attitude towards climate protection by pointing out concrete, climate-friendly ways of behavior. In this way it is possible to strengthen the young people’s believe in their actions (self-efficacy) and to reduce the gap between attitude and action.

How to cite: Feldbacher, E., Waberer, M., Campostrini, L., and Weigelhofer, G.: From knowledge to action – can modern and active teaching formats help to bridge the value-action gap among school students and raise their climate-friendly behavior?, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8229, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8229, 2021.

EGU21-13240 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

Resources for teachers on the “Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate”

Simon Klein, Eric Guilyardi, Djian Sadadou, Mathilde Tricoire, and David Wilgenbus

The essential role of education in addressing the causes and consequences of anthropogenic climate change is increasingly being recognised at an international level. The Office for Climate Education (OCE) develops educational resources and proposes professional development opportunities to support teachers, worldwide, to mainstream climate change education. Drawing upon the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, the OCE has produced a set of educational resources that cover the scientific and societal dimensions, at local and global levels, while developing students’ reasoning abilities and guiding them to take action (mitigation and/or adaptation) in their schools or communities. These resources include:

1. Ready-to-use teacher handbook that (i) target students from the last years of primary school to the end of lower-secondary school (aged 9 to 15), (ii) include scientific and pedagogical overviews, lesson plans, activities and worksheets, (iii) are interdisciplinary, covering topics in the natural sciences, social sciences, arts and physical education, (iv) promote active pedagogies: inquiry-based science education, role-play, debate, projectbased learning.

2. A Summary for teachers of the IPCC Special Report, presented together with a selection of related activities and exercises that can be implemented in the classroom. 

3. A set of 10 videos where experts speak about a specific issue related to the ocean or the cryosphere, in the context of climate change.

4. A set of 4 multimedia activities offering students the possibility of working interactively in different topics related to climate change.

5. A set of 3 resources for teacher trainers, offering turnkey training protocols on the topics of climate change, ocean and cryosphere.

How to cite: Klein, S., Guilyardi, E., Sadadou, D., Tricoire, M., and Wilgenbus, D.: Resources for teachers on the “Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate”, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13240, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13240, 2021.

EGU21-16133 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

On the need of new educational curricula in the field of space technologies and their applications.

Valerio Tramutoli, Nicola Capece, Roberto Colonna, Ugo Erra, Caroilina Filizzola, Teodosio Lacava, Guido Masiello, Valeria Satriano, Giuseppe Scanniello, and Carmine Serio

The need of dedicated educational curricula in the field of space technologies and their applications was identified as a gap in the official European offer already in 2013 when the Virtual GMES Academy concept was launched with the Salzburg protocol in the framework of EU4Regions project. Since then, the goal to fill this educational gap (no official academic courses are presently offered covering all the aspects of Space Technologies from the mission design up to the applications developments) has been included, as a pillar, in the European Copernicus-uptake strategy, After the start of the European network of Copernicus Academies, the EO4GEO project took the initiative to design the Body of Knowledge (BoK) to be at the base of new specific educational curricula and well identified skills in the field. 
The present status of development of Bok, its relevance even for non-EU and particularly for developing countries, is here discussed and presented. 

How to cite: Tramutoli, V., Capece, N., Colonna, R., Erra, U., Filizzola, C., Lacava, T., Masiello, G., Satriano, V., Scanniello, G., and Serio, C.: On the need of new educational curricula in the field of space technologies and their applications., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16133, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16133, 2021.

EGU21-14885 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

Time-series of GhG emissions estimation for the learning of inverse modeling

Carlos Gómez-Ortiz, Guillaume Monteil, and Marko Scholze

Inverse modeling is a commonly used method to infer greenhouse gases (GhGs) sources and sinks based on their observed concentrations in the atmosphere. It is a Bayesian framework and requires a priori fluxes of all the evaluated sources and sinks, atmospheric observations, an atmospheric transport model that relates the observations to the a priori fluxes and the uncertainties of both fluxes and observations. Various techniques exist to solve the inversion.

Atmospheric inverse modeling is and will become even more important in the future quantification of GhGs to monitor the compliance of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. Therefore, the scientific and educational communities are becoming more interested in using atmospheric inversions and this has risen a necessity of creating tools that facilitate understanding as well as training in these techniques.

Quantifying anthropogenic GhG emissions, such as CO2 from fossil fuel burning or CH4 from human activities, from atmospheric concentration observations is difficult since the carbon from all sources, both natural and anthropogenic, is mixed in the atmosphere, making it necessary to use other signals or tracers to separate anthropogenic emissions from natural sources. For fossil fuel CO2 emissions radiocarbon (14CO2) is an excellent emission tracer because, due to its radioactive decay (~ 5000 years), it cannot be found in fossil fuels, which have been deposited millions of years ago as organic material. We have developed a Jupyter Notebook based on Python for the quantification of multi-tracer GhGs fossil fuel emissions and its isotopes. The notebook solves for the emissions by applying atmospheric inversions within a practical two-box model. The inverse modeling notebook is based on the analytical maximum a posteriori (MAP) solution of the Bayes’ theorem and allows to assess the error in the state vector and its uncertainty.

This basic but powerful notebook is meant to be an educational and training tool for university students and new researchers in the field as well as for researchers interested in the estimation of long-term (>centennial) time-series of GhG emissions since it is built as a modular algorithm to be easily modified, coupled or expanded to other approaches or models depending on the application. The notebook was initially developed for the inverse modeling of CO2 and 14CO2 simultaneously and it is being expanded for additional GHG such as CH4 and 13CH4.

How to cite: Gómez-Ortiz, C., Monteil, G., and Scholze, M.: Time-series of GhG emissions estimation for the learning of inverse modeling, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14885, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14885, 2021.

EGU21-9531 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

GlacierMap: a citizen science mapping tool for evaluating glacier change and contributing to climate literacy

Caroline Clason, Sally Rangecroft, Gina Kallis, Shaun Lewin, Tom Mullier, Will Blake, and Iain Stewart

Glacier retreat provides clear, visual evidence of environmental change in response to warming temperatures around the world. In the tropical Andes of Peru, glaciers act as critical buffers to water supply essential to water, food, and energy security downstream, especially during the dry season. The direct and indirect impacts of glacier change are an important part of the global sustainability challenge within the context of both climate change and increased pressures on resources. Public understanding around glacier-fed water supplies, and subsequent threats to this for millions of people due to climate change, is an important component of climate literacy.

In this context, we have developed a web-based interdisciplinary citizen science glacier mapping tool (GlacierMap) to help to raise awareness of these issues, particularly amongst UK high school pupils, and to contribute to increased public support for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change. Users of GlacierMap undertake an interactive learning experience by mapping a glacier from two different periods (1984 and 2018) from freely available Landsat data, resulting in a visual demonstration of glacier retreat within Peru’s Cordillera Blanca, while learning more about the impacts of this retreat from information provided by the project. 

During the first four months of data collection we integrated pre- and post-mapping questionnaires into the GlacierMap app to evaluate the extent to which participation in mapping impacted understanding of glacier change and concern regarding the associated impacts. We also assessed the value of ‘crowd-sourcing’ glacier mapping for the purposes of glacier monitoring and data generation through comparison of mapping conducted by the general public and that of a control group with previous education and/or work experience in glaciology. In doing so, we have identified a number of challenges and opportunities with regards to the use of a citizen science-based educational activity for climate learning. Challenges relate to recruitment of participants, evaluation, and ethics (particularly when working with children and young people), while opportunities were identified in terms of increasing public awareness, the provision of alternative forms of learning, and global reach.  

How to cite: Clason, C., Rangecroft, S., Kallis, G., Lewin, S., Mullier, T., Blake, W., and Stewart, I.: GlacierMap: a citizen science mapping tool for evaluating glacier change and contributing to climate literacy, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9531, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9531, 2021.

Citizens’ Climate Lobby is an international organization educating citizens and their political representatives on a solution that could on its own reach 80% of the Paris COP21 objectives. The beauty of this solution is that, although Climate Change is complex and thousands of solutions, regulations, fundings are already implemented, it is a unique and simple solution that would be much more effective and could complement existing ones in driving the change we need. However, this solution is new to most citizens and politicians and needs to be explained to citizens’s volunteering for climate action, policy developers and politicians.

The focus on Carbon Pricing is based on the international economic and scientific consensus as the highest priority primary legislation to address climate change. The need to redistribute the revenues in the form of dividend or climate income is driven both by effectiveness and acceptability and has been enhanced by the Yellow Vest experience in France and the Covid 19 impact. 

Between 2014 and 2020 national teams within the EU have educated and lobbied to build political will with national governments in favour of Carbon Pricing as the most effective climate policy. In the last two years CCL began to work at the European level developing strategy to build political will for the essential support from the European Parliament to support and encourage consistent Carbon Pricing both inside the EU and Internationally. 

Starting with mutual respect and appreciation, more than 500 groups in more than 50 countries engage society in its widest sense. “We seek to educate, build partnerships with and gain the support of community leaders and non-governmental organizations, both nationally and locally.” In Europe CCL has active groups lobbying in Germany; France; Sweden; UK; Denmark; Norway; Spain; Poland & Portugal. In the EU Parliament lobby experience is positive across a range of party groups with positive responses. This competency is currently being scaled up to build political will within the European Parliament.

CCL France, CC Europe and CCE  trains individuals to engage in climate communication on a human level, learning about the concerns, beliefs, and values of the people they seek to educate about the benefits of climate action. This training relies on techniques that include developing effective listening skills, motivational interviewing, and practicing conversational scenarios. 

In this presentation, we will explain and study 

- how CCL is building consensus across the political spectrum: from the market based solution promoted to conservatives to the progressive and efficient solution promoted to social democrats, from “carbon fee and dividend” to “climate income”

- the motivational interviewing used with politicians to build long term relationships and drive change.

- the challenges to explain the solution, from citizens not familiar with carbon footprint nor economic externalities, to policy developers at the EU commission dealing with the Emission Trading System, the energy taxation directive or the border carbon adjustment

How to cite: Ruban, S.: Citizens Climate Lobby, educating citizens to advocate for an effective climate solution, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9295, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9295, 2021.

EGU21-5380 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

Using Remote Sensing Technologies to Improve Climate Literacy of Students at the Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukrain

Svitlana Babiichuk, Stanislav Dovgyi, and Tetyana Kuchma

The Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (JASU) is a state-funded extracurricular educational system that develops and implements methods of science education. Climate education is an essential component of educational system at the JASU. Currently, the JASU has more than 250,000 students working in 64 scientific areas. In 2018, the Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine received the status of Category 2 Science Education Center under the auspices of UNESCO and joined the network of Copernicus Academies.

          In 2012, a new section, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing of the Earth (RS), was established at the Kyiv branch of the JASU, which is supervised by the GIS and RS Laboratory. Whereas the Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterized by a booming growth of IT and unprecedented environmental problems and climate changes, the Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine aims not only to prepare modern students for life in new environment, but also to improve their climate literacy. Therefore, the GIS and RS Laboratory set a goal to teach the students to utilize modern technologies for monitoring environmental conditions of a particular area through analysis of satellite imagery within the framework of the All-Ukrainian Competition, “Ecopohliad” (Ecoview) (hereinafter referred to as the “Competition”).

          Every day we receive arrays of spatial data that are published on the Internet. However, without proper analysis and, most importantly, interpretation, such data are deposits of rough diamonds hiding in rock formations. Knowledge of the sources and ways to analyse satellite imagery enables us to independently verify the information provided by the media or official statistics. In its activities, the Laboratory uses extensively cloud services, EO Browser and Giovanni, which are characterized by intuitive interface and large array of available satellite imagery.

          The Competition was held for the first time in 2019-2020. It was attended by 341 secondary school students. Topics of competition projects chosen by the students were mostly related to the climate change at their places of residence. In particular, Artem Shelestov examined the relationship between the area of greenery in Kyiv city using Sentinel-2 satellite images and average annual air concentration of PM 2.5 based on surveillance sensors data. Bohdan Avramenko examined the traffic load on the air in the city of Starobilsk, compared the data with the information from Sentinel-5P satellite, and developed appropriate recommendations.  Marharyta Korol analysed the scale and consequences of the fire that occurred in September 2019 in the village of Novi Sokoly near the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant, and the impact of this emergency situation on air pollution.

          These studies were not only of scientific interest, but also of practical importance. In particular, the results of investigations conducted by Competition winners were published in the media.

How to cite: Babiichuk, S., Dovgyi, S., and Kuchma, T.: Using Remote Sensing Technologies to Improve Climate Literacy of Students at the Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukrain, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5380, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5380, 2021.

The evolution of new technology and the progressive integration of automated processes in mining had been encouraged by reformed policies around the world. Initiatives were adopted in the hope that they will bring a more sustainable approach to mineral exploitation and help reduce CO2 emissions and put a stop in the temperature rises. Remote control machines and fully autonomous vehicles, as well as new applications in machine learning and big data management, used to analyse data collected from automated machines, are continuously innovated and introduced to mine sites across the globe by medium and large companies in the industry. Overall, they reduce the carbon footprint of companies and create a safer work environment. 

But what about artisanal and small-scale mining? How can new technology improve safety conditions? And how does that translate into a change in public opinion about the effects of mining on climate change? Also, could the introduction of new technologies be a way to push for climate literacy in regions where the most basic needs are generally the only concerns of the population?  

A ponderable part of the reasons why the sector is still vastly lagging in formalization and sustainable exploitation conditions is stemming from the lack of proper education and training, including climate literacy. This paper aims to show an overview of the changes automation would impose on a sector that is characterized by informal work in dangerous environments, limited use of mechanical tools, low capital and productivity, and limited access to markets - be it positive or negative- and highlight the main challenges that such a technological disruption would have to overcome. 

How to cite: Comaniciu, A.-C.: Literature review: Possible implications of introducing new technologies in artisanal and small scale mining activities on climate literacy in regional population, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9135, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9135, 2021.

EGU21-9132 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

Visual storytelling about future weather extremes in Norway

Jana Sillmann, Melanie Burford, and Miriam Stackpole Dahl

Extreme floods with severe impacts have hit municipalities in Western Norway in recent decades and they will become more intense and frequent with global warming. We present a project that focused on providing an approach for visualizing climate change information for decision-makers challenged with planning resilient infrastructure and preparedness measures for future flood impacts. We have chosen visual storytelling through a short film as the most suitable and effective tool for building a communication strategy to reach out to local and regional decision-makers on the one hand and the research community on the other.

The objective was to present and communicate results from a research project in a film by focusing on low-probability high-impact events using a storyline approach. The scope of the research project was to provide Norwegian stakeholders with a realistic representation of how an observed high-impact event of the past will look like under projected future climate conditions (Schaller et al. 2020, Hegdahl et al. 2020). Recent high-impact flood events in Norway have emphasized the need for more proactive climate change adaptation. This requires local, actionable and reliable climate information to support the decision making as well as awareness and consideration of barriers to adaptation. Thus, a seamless chain from global climate system modelling over high-resolution hydrological modelling to impact assessments is needed. We have therefore taken a novel "Tales of future weather" approach (Hazeleger et al. 2015), which suggests that scenarios tailored to a specific region and stakeholder context in combination with numerical weather prediction models will offer a more realistic picture of what future weather might look like, hence facilitating adaptation planning and implementation.

The film we produced particularly focuses on the extreme flood event in October 2005 that affected people (including fatalities) in Bergen municipality, how the event can be seen in context of historic floods and its atmospheric drivers. It tells the story of people having experienced this event and how Bergen municipality was responding to that event.  One key objective of the film is to drive interest and attention to the event-based storyline approach (Sillmann et al. 2020) to facilitate uptake of climate information and to empower decision makers with new knowledge and tools to assist them in their decision making.

 

References

Hazeleger, W., B. Van den Hurk, E. Min, G-J. Van Oldenborgh, A. Petersen, D. Stainforth, D., E. Vasileiadou, and L. Smith, 2015: Tales of future weather. Nature Climate Change, 5, 107-113, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2450.

Hegdahl, T.J., K. Engeland, M. Müller and J. Sillmann, 2020: Atmospheric River induced floods in western Norway – under present and future climate, J. Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-19-0071.1.

Schaller, N., J. Sillmann, M. Mueller, R. Haarsma, W. Hazeleger, T. Jahr Hegdahl, T. Kelder, G. van den Oord, A. Weerts, and K. Whan, 2020: The role of spatial and temporal model resolution in a flood event storyline approach in Western Norway, Weather and Climate Extremes, 29, doi: 10.1016/j.wace.2020.100259.

Sillmann, J., T. G. Shepherd, B. van den Hurk, W. Hazeleger, O. Martius, J. Zscheischler, 2020: Event-based storylines to address climate risk, Earth’s Future, doi: 10.1029/2020EF001783.

How to cite: Sillmann, J., Burford, M., and Stackpole Dahl, M.: Visual storytelling about future weather extremes in Norway, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9132, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9132, 2021.

EGU21-8097 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

Teaching scientific evidences of climate change to K12 : a key to reach social acceptance of mitigation and adaptation strategies

Gérard Vidal, Charles-Henri Eyraud, Carole Larose, and Éric Lejan

Our societies are violently hit by the implications of climate change. The IPCC keeps on waving red flags to the governments since its creation but few progress has been made, most of the proposed decisions do not rely on scientific facts.

Article 12 of Paris agreement requests that states made necessary efforts to inform and educate people. Teaching scientific data on climate change to K12 is our duty to provide them with the required knowledge and competencies to face challenges of the future.

Our proposal is to tackle climate change awareness and training through a global multilevel approach whose starting point is to measure meteorological parameters within the classroom or the school, then reach the use of digital data on climate projections computed by international laboratories.

1. Using a thermometer in primary schools : an easy tool to establish a scientific approach to weather and stimulate student’s curiosity to go further. The aim is to bring pupils from the empiric observation of the temperature to quantitative measurements of temperature. It can lead to understand that differences between observed temperatures contribute to the definition / recognition of seasons and their changes across time.

2. Weather-station : one of the best multi-purpose devices for lower secondary schools. It is a visible signal for families, pupils, administrations. Describing the variations in time or in space, smoothly bring the pupils from the weather observed to the parameters of local or regional climate; it is a first approach of the difference between errors and uncertainties.

3. Mathematical models and access to laboratory resources : scientific resource to tackle climate change in upper secondary schools. Even if the equations are too complex for a student to manipulate, students will get access to results computed in laboratories. It will lead to giving an insight to global or regional models and to the scenarios which take into account the long term variation of constraints on the models to build climate projections.

Understanding does not mean blind acceptation and the role of science teachers is to provide the students with the necessary skills and knowledge to be able to understand the climate situation and its evolution. In any case social acceptance will be facilitated when citizens understand the facts and reasons that back uncomfortable decisions or actions.

How to cite: Vidal, G., Eyraud, C.-H., Larose, C., and Lejan, É.: Teaching scientific evidences of climate change to K12 : a key to reach social acceptance of mitigation and adaptation strategies, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8097, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8097, 2021.

EGU21-2780 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

Using the foods we love and need to enhance climate literacy

Michael Hoffmann

Climate change is affecting the foods we love and need—just about everything on the menu is changing. Plants, the basis of life, require the right temperatures, water, soil, air, and sunlight. All but sunlight are changing and having subtle and in many cases ominous impacts on our foods and beverages—from spices and herbs to pistachios. The flavors of teas, the protein and mineral content of wheat, vitamins in rice, and yields of many crops are undergoing change. This story needs to be told given the cultural, historical, and personal connections everyone has to food. The communication and outreach approaches taken to enhance climate literacy include a book – Our Changing Menu: Climate Change and the Foods we Love and Need and a companion website, which includes a searchable database of the hundreds of food ingredients that are changing. The changing menu may be a way to join forces—consumers, producers, chefs, restaurateurs, and food businesses—to find a common ground and draw more attention and action to address this grand challenge of climate change. We all eat.

How to cite: Hoffmann, M.: Using the foods we love and need to enhance climate literacy, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2780, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2780, 2021.

Solar irradiance is one of the defining factors determining Earth’s climate and habitability. Thus, comprehension of Earth’s orbital parameters, and the resulting apparent motions of the Sun on the celestial sphere and spatio-temporal patterns of insolation, is an important part of climate literacy. The Earth orbit v2.1 model (Kostadinov and Gilb, 2014, GMD) focused on 3D Earth orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation visualization and analysis with research and pedagogical applications.  Here I introduce AstroGeoVis v1.0 – software that performs astronomical visualizations relevant to Earth and climate science, with a focus on the apparent motions of the Sun on the celestial sphere and related concepts, with primarily pedagogical applications in mind. Specifically, AstroGeoVis v1.0 computes solar equatorial and local horizontal coordinates (using the Meeus (1998) algorithms) and uses first principles to compute and visualize various phenomena such as the terminator, daily path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, shadow geometry, the equation of time and the analemma, seasonality and daylength. Instantaneous irradiance on a randomly oriented solar panel is computed and used to determine annual energy production and optimize panel orientation, demonstrating numerical integration and optimization. This component of AstroGeoVis v1.0 is particularly relevant in the context of the increasing importance of solar renewable energy and sustainable practices such as passive building design, requiring that an increasing number and variety of professionals be familiar with Sun-Earth geometry and related concepts.

AstroGeoVis v1.0 was written in MATLAB© and is open source. I provide multiple examples and ideas for classroom use, including a complete exercise in which students track solar declination throughout the semester via shadow length and azimuth measurements. The software has multiple pedagogical advantages, e.g. figures are dynamic and can be re-created by the instructor, for example for a specific latitude, some are 3D and have pan/tilt/zoom capability. The scientific code itself can be inspected, modified and improved by instructors and students as needed, i.e. it is intended that the code as well as the visualizations will be used in instructional settings. This makes AstroGeoVis v1.0 applicable in pedagogical settings at many levels, across many disciplines, e.g. physical geography, oceanography, meteorology, climatology, Earth system science, physics, astronomy, mathematics and computer science. Earth sciences, like many other disciplines, have increasingly become highly quantitative and computational in nature, dealing with large numerical data sets (e.g. climate model development and analysis). AstroGeoVis v1.0 is intended to help students master not only astronomical concepts relevant to Earth and climate sciences, but also acquire scientific computing and data analysis skills, which are becoming increasingly indispensable for a wide variety of careers.

How to cite: Kostadinov, T.: Teaching Astronomical Concepts Relevant to Earth and Climate Sciences with AstroGeoVis 1.0 : Leveraging Scientific Computing and Dynamic Visualizations, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-526, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-526, 2021.

EGU21-3815 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

Developing Climate Change Literacy to Combat Climate Change and Its Impacts

Julie Johnston

If literacy can be defined as competence or knowledge in a specific area, then climate change literacy is competence or knowledge in the area of climate change, its impacts, and its solutions. Climate change literacy is a vital element in strategies for meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13: "Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts" — and, frankly, safeguarding the survival of the human species and most life on Earth. Developing climate change literacy in individuals, institutions, and societies entails understanding why it is important, who must be involved, what it includes, where and when it takes place, how to deal with challenges that arise, and what the end result, a climate-change-literate citizen, will look like.

How to cite: Johnston, J.: Developing Climate Change Literacy to Combat Climate Change and Its Impacts, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3815, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3815, 2021.

EGU21-5537 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

Getting to impact at scale: A dynamic model to guide scaling of climate change education

Juliette Rooney-Varga and Florian Kapmeier

In order to successfully address climate change, society needs education that scales rapidly, transmits scientific information about its causes and effects, and motivates sustained commitment to the problem and science-based action to address it. The gap in public understanding and motivation to address climate change is not caused by a lack of information or educational resources that are effective. Systems thinking and simulation-based learning have been shown to deliver gains in knowledge, affect, and intent to take action and learn more about climate change. But, in order to have impact at scale, an educational innovation must be adopted at scale. Most of the time they are not: uptake from dissemination, active outreach, or word-of-mouth diffusion among educators usually falls short. Here, we describe and apply a simple system dynamics model to explore why propagation efforts often fall flat. We then use the model to explore how rapid scaling could be achieved in higher education. We rely on prior studies and expert opinion for model structure and parameterization. Our analysis shows that outreach has limited impact and does little to accelerate word-of-mouth adoption under conditions typical in higher education. Instead, widespread adoption is fueled by encouraging and supporting adopters’ efforts to reach, persuade, and support potential adopters through community-based propagation. We explore faculty incentives and cultural shifts that could enable community-based propagation.

How to cite: Rooney-Varga, J. and Kapmeier, F.: Getting to impact at scale: A dynamic model to guide scaling of climate change education, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5537, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5537, 2021.

EGU21-15671 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

Defining Terms for Climate Literacy

Katie Singer
 
To move forward with substantial, constructive actions that reduce overall consumption and emissions, the public, scientists and policymakers need agreement about our terms. Terms like "sustainability," "zero-emissions" and "carbon-neutrality" tend to focus on a device or vehicle's energy use and emissions during operation--and to exclude energy use and emission during extraction, smelting, manufacturing and recycling or discard. What do such exclusions mean for e-vehicles, smartphones and solar panels? How can we encourage learning about and reducing electronics' true costs? Katie Singer will describe the process involved in manufacturing electronic-grade silicon (similar to solar-grade silicon), and propose that every Internet user learn the international supply chain of one substance (of 1000+) in their device. She will also propose ways to counterbalance a digital footprint.

How to cite: Singer, K.: Defining Terms for Climate Literacy, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15671, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15671, 2021.

EGU21-5714 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

“Young Innovators” story: case study of Latvia

Gunta Kalvane and Santa Krastiņa

STEM teachers in Latvia acknowledge that the climate issue is one of the most difficult and incomprehensible topics for students because of the complexity of the climate system itself and because that students do not see the consequences and responsibilities of their actions. In addition, there is little climate-related teaching materials available in Latvian language.

In 2020, we have implemented the experience of EIT Climate-KIC project “Young Innovators” into the school's curriculum and nonformal education (through Latvian 4Hclub – leading and largest NGO) in Latvia.

“Young Innovators” is a pilot program for youngsters (12-18), to promote their entrepreneurial and social skills, systemic thinking aimed at tackling climate change, reducing environmental problems and improving the living environment. Together with stakeholders they are working on real-life challenges (more about the program: https://younginnovators.climate-kic.org/about-the-programme/).

We started with the webinar cycle for NGO leaders in April (it should be noted, that for many of them it was their first webinar ever), while in August the webinars were organized for geography and STEM teachers. In the summer (when restrictions were lifted) we had workshops with students: using the mind map and photo-voting methods, we identified the most important areas for students and the major environmental problems. Using the project tools, the analytical assessment and visioning of the problem has been done. The last step was – visiting the local authorities.

In addition, at the end of August we organized a 3-hour Climathon (total 250 participants), where we worked on the challenges given by the stakeholder - WWF (Waste food), Enefit Latvija (green energy solutions); national fruit growers (local apples marketing campaigns) etc.

Project methods and tools can be used in both – formal and non-formal education systems and were welcomed by both students and teachers.

Activities were carried out within the framework of EIT Climate-KIC financial support.

How to cite: Kalvane, G. and Krastiņa, S.: “Young Innovators” story: case study of Latvia, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5714, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5714, 2021.

Since the IPCC (2018) 1.5°C Report, the climate emergency is widely recognized. Then 2019 COP25 statement by IPCC Chair Dr H. Lee ,referring to the three recent IPCC Special Reports (2018,2019,2019) is crucial emphasizing that global emissions MUST decline by and from 2020. The Summaries for Policy Makers (SPMs) are convincing for communication as all world governments approve them. Though the IPCC assesses climate change, the environmental health emergency called climate change is climate system disruption from atmospheric greenhouse gas pollution. The IPCC assessments can be used to produce risk assessments. IPCC published climate change science reports are invaluable, especially the FAQs. The most important message in the IPCC (2014) AR5 and 1.5°C Report is that global emissions have to decline rapidly from 2020, via market failure corrections, for a 1.5°C and for a 2°C limit. The greatest impact to humanity is on food security, and from the IPCC we describe regional crop impacts and crop model limitations. We elucidate IPCC reports on confidence, carbon budget, net zero, negative emissions, value judgements, and recommendations. We clarify inertias, commitment, risks, and amplifying feedbacks. Long-term data trends, rather than only model projections, can now be relied on. We relate IPCC scenarios to worst-case, business-as-usual and best case. For risk we use the IPCC upper ranges, because long-term projected temperature increases are underestimated as they do not account for amplifying feedbacks or decline of carbon sinks, and are only based on a single median climate sensitivity (3C). Although the IPCC shows that atmospheric CO2 is "forever," IPCC SPM projections are all now only to 2100.  From the IPCC RCP scenarios the world is tracking closest to the worst case scenario (RCP8.5). On this scenario the IPCC 1.5°C Report projects 1.5°C by 2035 and 2°C  by 2047. The greatest risk to the future of humanity and most life is multiple inter-reinforcing amplifying feedbacks that lead to hothouse Earth and on to runaway. The evidence for multiple Arctic feedback emissions and Amazon die-back can be found in the IPCC 2014 5th assessment. This reinforces the imperative requiring immediate and rapid global emissions decline. 

How to cite: Carter, P.: Using the IPCC for Communicating Both the Full Extent of the Global Climate Emergency and the Required Response, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6315, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6315, 2021.

EGU21-7552 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

Inclusive Strategies in Climate Change Teaching, Learning and Action

Elena Sparrow, Katie Spellman, Malinda Chase, Christina Buffington, Bonnie Murray, Angela Larson, and Kelly Kealy

Our project “Feedbacks and Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Engaging Learners in STEM Using NASA and GLOBE assets” also called “Arctic and Earth SIGNs” (STEM Integrating GLOBE and NASA) engages in climate change education, audiences underserved and underrepresented in STEM e.g. Alaska Natives, those economically disadvantaged, and those who work in rural regions. We invite and support teams of formal and informal educators and community members from Alaska and beyond to participate in a Climate Change in My Community course and to work with youth on climate learning and a stewardship project relevant to their community. Our strategies include: 1) using a culturally responsive learning model we developed, 2) braiding multiple knowledge systems, 3) negotiating content and process in course planning and implementation, 4) ensuring a voice and a seat at the table for everyone, 5) inquiry-based, experiential and place-based STEM teaching practices, 6) intergenerational teaching and learning, 7) interactive Meet the Scientist live video sessions, 8) building relationships within and beyond participant teams and with the project team of educators, Elders and University of Alaska/NASA scientists, 9) providing skills and citizen science tools to engage youth in addressing climate change issues in their communities or for use in developing their community climate change adaptation plans, and 10) cultivating partnerships such as the Association of Interior Native Educators, Renewable Energy for Alaska Project, Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, and the Alaska Arctic Observatory and Knowledge Hub.

In 2020, ten teams implemented stewardship projects that reflected many of the principles of citizen/community science that effectively engage diverse audiences. Of these course participants, 100% increased their confidence to facilitate real-world inquiry activities (p < 0.001), 77% increased their knowledge of the earth systems, (p < 0.001) and 69% of the students who teams worked with, reported increased critical thinking skills (p< 0.01).  Twelve individuals from these teams were interviewed: 100% of interviewees reported benefits to students, such as learning to collect data, presenting their findings to their peers, exploring STEM careers, and interacting with scientists; 83% reported specific benefits to themselves as an educator which include increased content knowledge and the opportunity to think more deeply about the science and opportunities to connect with students outside of the classroom; 100% reported that the project goals and activities align with and are relevant to the needs and interests of the participants, including contribution to conservation efforts, contribution to science, curricular goals, and a personal connection; 67% reported community engagement, including involving Elders and community members in data collection and storytelling, representatives of local park and water conservation district offering a science talk to the whole community, and advertising their project at the community post office. Those that didn’t report involving the community noted the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

How to cite: Sparrow, E., Spellman, K., Chase, M., Buffington, C., Murray, B., Larson, A., and Kealy, K.: Inclusive Strategies in Climate Change Teaching, Learning and Action, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7552, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7552, 2021.

EGU21-8576 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2 | Highlight

Using an interdisciplinary MOOC to teach climate science and science communication to a global classroom

Bärbel Winkler and John Cook

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are a powerful educational tool, making scientific content available to a large and diverse audience. The MOOC “Making Sense of Climate Science Denial” applies science communication principles derived from cognitive psychology and misconception-based learning in the design of video lectures covering many aspects of climate change. As well as teaching fundamental climate science, the course also presents psychological and critical thinking research into climate science denial, teaching students the most effective techniques for responding to misinformation. A number of the enrolled “students" have been secondary and tertiary educators, who have adopted the course content in their own classes as well as adapted their teaching techniques based on the science communication principles presented in the lectures. The MOOC—developed by John Cook while at the University of Queensland's Global Change Insitute—integrates cognitive psychology, educational research and climate science in an interdisciplinary online course that has had over 40,000 enrolments from over 180 countries since the MOOC was launched in 2015.

How to cite: Winkler, B. and Cook, J.: Using an interdisciplinary MOOC to teach climate science and science communication to a global classroom, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8576, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8576, 2021.

Challenges abound as our Earth warms, seas rise, and weather extremes become more and more common. Solutions to these challenges requires the collective knowledge of many along with transdisciplinary approaches, resulting in unique, creative, and comprehensive solutions.  In addition, these challenges come in many spatial and temporal sizes, and therefore solutions are needed at local, regional, global levels organized by small scale and larger scale groups. School systems can be a hub of ingenuity when it comes to designing and implementing solutions if guided by a clear pathway. Some states in the United States of America have adopted standards for learning that include climate science and climate change across all subject areas. In these states the vision for standards implementation parallels a vision for meeting the local and regional challenges of climate change. This presentation will outline the new roles afforded schools in our collective effort to reverse climate change and reduce its impact along the way.

How to cite: Holzer, M.: Climate Science and Climate Change Across the Curricula – Seizing Opportunities, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9252, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9252, 2021.

EGU21-10232 | vPICO presentations | EOS3.2

3D Models for web based climate education 

Ronald Sumners, Luisa Vargas Suarez, Jamie Griffiths, and Jason Donev

Effectively informing the public about anthropogenically accelerated climate change and sustainable energy is one of the most immense challenges of our age. However, web-based 3D environments are cost-effective, accessible tools that can combat many of the challenges associated with global outreach, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This presentation explores how 3D CAD modeling, visual texturing, Three.JS (a WebGL rendering software), and web design can coexist to create effective tools for educators across the world. By applying these simulations, learners are able to examine individual components of objects and break down complex systems into their fundamental parts for simpler understanding. Moreover, by breaking down these systems, individuals are able to more effectively understand the complex physical phenomena that drive our world. In addition, these environments are not limited by topic or language and therefore the spectrum to which we can apply these ideas is not limited. Translating the simulations is relatively straightforward and with the expertise of individuals who can lead this front, the reach of this type of technology can grow even wider. Climate change is a global issue and so work in the field must be addressed as such as well. As a result, these models have the ability to transform the way we learn about global issues and can be a powerful tool in education about sustainable energy, climate change and science in general.

How to cite: Sumners, R., Vargas Suarez, L., Griffiths, J., and Donev, J.: 3D Models for web based climate education , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10232, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10232, 2021.

EOS4.2 – Geoethics: Geosciences serving Society

EGU21-2411 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2 | Highlight

Geoethics in a scheme: a simplified way to represent its definition, vision, and theoretical structure

Silvia Peppoloni and Giuseppe Di Capua

Geoethics arises from the awareness that, only partly consciously, human beings have irreversibly modified and are continuing to modify the natural environments and territories in which they live and operate. Humans alter not only physical, chemical and biological characteristics of their niche, but also social and cultural traits that connote social–ecological systems today as in the past, which in turn, in a feedback mechanism, influence people’s economic development, social perspectives and sense-making. It then becomes a responsibility for geoscientists to look beyond their traditional areas of work and each interact proactively with civic communities to promote changes that are needed. The key concepts of geoethics constitute a cultural proposal for the whole society, on which to base new perspectives for the human agent.
Ten years ago, the first session dedicated to geoethics was organized at the EGU General Assembly in order to widen the discussion on ethics in geosciences. Nowadays the theoretical framework of geoethics has consolidated and it has become the proposal on which to base a global ethics of the human agent towards the Earth system. This work synthetizes in a scheme the reference framework on which geoethics developed, its definition, foundations, and main characteristics, highlighting the importance of sharing values and actions among planetary human communities to manage global changes and threats.

How to cite: Peppoloni, S. and Di Capua, G.: Geoethics in a scheme: a simplified way to represent its definition, vision, and theoretical structure, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2411, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2411, 2021.

EGU21-604 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Geoethics, a Philosophical Hybrid of European Origin

Martin Bohle

European philosophies shape geoethics. The Culture-Nature-Dichotomy (“appropriate behaviours and practices, wherever human activities interact with the Earth system” [1; p.30]) and the associated anthropocentric interpretation of the human condition [1; p.58-60] is an example.

The European post-medieval cultural models [2, 3] led to engage early with scientific studies of Earth [4, 5], to merge science, research, engineering, economy and applied ethics into a massive societal venture [6, 7], and to shape global hegemonic societal practices [8, 9]. These developments provide the socio-historical foundation of geoethics. It implies depicting Culture and Nature differently, respectively using either idealistic or materialistic philosophies.

Tinted by European cultural models, geoethics is based on geosciences knowledge and applies philosophical materialism when inspecting Nature. However, geoethics displays philosophical idealism when inspecting Culture, e.g. the virtuous individual's societal role [1; p.33-43]. Recently, an academic noticed: “not even a single word [in geoethics] about the structural determinations upon individuals in the particular form of social organisation where they live [a].” Such a critical view (absence to apply philosophical materialism) is valuable when considering that geoethics aims to advise about “appropriate [socio-historical/cultural] behaviours and practices”.

Such considerations point at the need to re-inspect the philosophical basis of geoethics. Merely being ‘tinted’ by European cultural models is unsatisfying. Instead, analyses should show whether to apply idealistic and materialistic philosophies. Investigating, for example, whether to inspect Culture like Nature using philosophical materialism, would test the consistency of the current philosophical hybrid, geoethics; subsequently, such analyses should elucidate geoethics’ anthropocentric bearings.

[a] anonymous review published in Quaternary (2019); https://www.mdpi.com/2571-550X/2/2/19/review_report (1st round reviewer 2 report)

How to cite: Bohle, M.: Geoethics, a Philosophical Hybrid of European Origin, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-604, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-604, 2021.

EGU21-16180 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

De complexitate mundi – What a complexful world

Umberto Fracassi

Bare twenty years into the XXI century – and what a treat. Damaging earthquakes with regional impact, climate extremes disrupting weather cycles, water shortages in high-income regions, scarcer (and costlier) energy and mineral resources, rising population. Add a slice of global geopolitical instabilities – even where one would never expect to report them from. And, well, why not: a novel pathogen, so little yet so commanding that the world is still vying with it.

Natural hazards and anthropogenic factors interact in multiple ways and across various scales, close or afar, in time and space. They interweave a web of complexities that can appear deceitful, capricious, or otherwise overwhelming to the citizens of contemporary societies – even in statistically affluent and educated ones. There comes the role of geosciences, from paleontology to high-atmosphere physics, from energy to oceanography, from the solid to the not so solid earth. There comes their transformative, instrumental task – as new and as pressing as ever.

Geosciences are not (and will not) what they used to be, bound as they are to glean lessons learned from the past to provide insight into the future. Geoscientists were once thought to study ancient rocks, fiddle with very slow-moving tectonic plates, and bantering about invisible earth’s features, too large, or too deep, or too far away to even imagine for us earthlings. But this is no longer the case – and maybe never has been. At the core of geosciences’ interests lies Nature, for what it is – with all its grand size, seemingly slow processes that unveil sudden effects, complex interactions among forces and bodies across distances and time. These prove to be paramount tools to probe a world perceived as inscrutable, increasingly richer in risks and poorer in resources.

Therefore, tools of yesterday’s intellectual quests prove instrumental to decipher tomorrow’s societal issues, such as:

- The long records of natural events (hazards);
- Far-flung origins (our solar system and the universe);
- Far-reaching effects (feedback, periodicity, and recurrence times);
- Need to forecast (or at least account for) the irregular behaviors of modern phenomena (not always known or detectable by current means).

The knowledge of compounded risks of natural origin provides an outlook on where and what to call for enduring communities. This applies also to risks resulting from interaction among natural events and anthropogenic components. Since natural phenomena embed complexities due to multiple variables and intrinsic feedback, interaction among natural and non-natural ones brings novel issues, requiring a remarkably broad outlook – global and beyond. The natural consequence is then to envision natural risks against population distribution, spatial extents of natural resources, size, and time window of induced effects.

Picking a selection of examples, this talk thus tries to put into perspective:

- Hazards stemming from multiple, at times unpredictable sources;
- The precious role of geosciences to decipher them – and to forecast them;
- The complexity of natural hazards, the flexibility of human planning;
- Modern issues challenging societies and economies – today, tomorrow, and thereafter.

How to cite: Fracassi, U.: De complexitate mundi – What a complexful world, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16180, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16180, 2021.

EGU21-3079 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2 | Highlight

Geoethics: Recent Art Projects by Ying Kit Chan

Ying Kit Chan

As a visual artist, I have been engaging in art projects that examine environmental ethics for four decades. I propose to present two of my recent bodies of work at the EGU21 EOS4.2 Geothics Session. The titles of these two series of work are Deep Ecology and Red Alert.

Deep Ecology, developed between 2014 and 2016, is a series of multimedia artwork that examines environmental philosophy from the geocentric rather than anthropocentric world view. This body of work comprises artworks in mediums of drawing, photography, print and installation. Deep Ecology is a philosophical study based on Taoist and Buddhist ideas and addresses the moral relationship between human beings and nature.

Red Alert is a series of artwork produced between 2016 to 2000. This series of artwork critiques the increasing hazardous existence of plastic pollution in our environments. Objects in this series are all made of discarded plastic, including products such as grocery bags, household containers, packaging materials, and debris collected from riverbanks and city streets. The red color symbolizes the final warning, signaling an emergency state of our planet of unprecedented magnitude and scope.

How to cite: Chan, Y. K.: Geoethics: Recent Art Projects by Ying Kit Chan, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3079, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3079, 2021.

EGU21-13709 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Applied geoethics: CITI199’s essays from the Austral University of Chile

Sandor Mulsow, Beatriz Barrales, Nicolas Espinoza, Magdalena Flandez, Leandro Ledezma, Esteban Munzenmayer, Adriana Rivera-Murton, Pablo Salinas, Fernando Valenzuela, Rodolfo Valenzuela, and Marco Valle

Geoethics is a term that describes the internal knowledge of values ​​which must be reflected in the interaction with other people and with the physical and biological environment that surrounds us.

When talking about ethics or specifically geoethics, exact definitions are sought which always seem to be short and very difficult to write in a sentence. One of the reasons may be is that it is about minimizing a life process to a noun, adjective or adverb. "It is a life process," is an awareness of the maximum expression of that part that we call human, internal, which maintains a balanced posture. This self-awareness is essential since it allows to relate to the environment (including peers) in the same way, tolerant, dignified, respectful humanly and environmentally speaking

In 2020, during the pandemic, we have undertaken a challenge at our University by teaching a course on Geoethics in Earth Sciences (CITI199). This course was designed following the general guidelines of IAPG. The adaptation to the Chilean reality was given by the same students. After assimilating the bases of ethics, values ​​and moral principles, through the interventions of anthropologists, sociologists, geographers and native peoples, we have generated 2 unpublished activities in Chile, a student survey on the state of knowledge of geoethics in the School of Geology and applied the geoethical foundations in the daily life of Chile.

In this series of presentations we report the results and analysis of the survey and recommendations to continue with the process of offering the university community the value of having an initial geoethical position in professional development. Later in the session, 4 situations in which society interacts with the environment from a geoethical perspective are evaluated and analyzed: 1) degradation and use of soils, 2) massive production of exotic salmon, 3) use of fresh water and 4 ) privatization of the common heritage of humanity in international waters.

How to cite: Mulsow, S., Barrales, B., Espinoza, N., Flandez, M., Ledezma, L., Munzenmayer, E., Rivera-Murton, A., Salinas, P., Valenzuela, F., Valenzuela, R., and Valle, M.: Applied geoethics: CITI199’s essays from the Austral University of Chile, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13709, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13709, 2021.

Humans and their environment are inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine regions, and scientific and social values often must be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. Graduate students discuss these balances in a 1-credit seminar offered via the Marine, Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland. The MEES program uses an interdisciplinary approach to train students in scientific discovery, integration, and application to generate new knowledge and to solve environmental problems, including social sciences. In the seminar, graduate students examine these problems through the lens of Geoethics, the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research and practice, using a case-study approach. After a brief introduction to the concept, students develop a list of topics to examine throughout the seminar. In Spring 2020, these topics included climate-change communication, field harassment, community-based science, sustainability science, and preserving biodiversity. At the end of the semester, students give a presentation on ethical aspects of their own research.

How to cite: Palinkas, C.: Teaching and learning about ethical aspects of environmental science with graduate students, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5782, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5782, 2021.

EGU21-1763 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2 | Highlight

Geoethics education and climate literacy: Bridging the gap – interactively

David Crookall, Pimnutcha Promduangsri, and Pariphat Promduangsri

In previous years, the authors have addressed questions related to geoethics education, or what we have called geo-edu-ethics (GEE), in relation to geo-problems in general (such as global warming, pollution, sea-level rise, deforestation, ocean acidification, biodiversity).

In this session we wish to focus in on the greatest of all geo-problems, that of climate change (CC), which necessarily entails the urgent need for massive, widespread climate literacy (CL) – both education and learning.  We wish to examine the relationships between GEE and CL, their overlaps and differences, and how they may mutually reinforce each other.  In so doing, we will also touch on the ethics of educational and learning methods that are used to help people learn about geoethics and CC.

Currently, it seems that the two areas work in parallel, maybe even separated by a mindset of splendid isolation, and yet the apparent overlap, not least in their visons and missions, beckons us to bring the two closer together.  This is what we will attempt in our presentation.  The questions that we plan to address include the following:

  • Is it true, or a misconception, that GEE and CL tend to work separately, often ignorant of each other?
  • What do GEE and CL have in common?
  • Their ethos, their content, their methods, their audience?
  • Is it possible to unify the GEE and CL into an overarching rational and thereby form a coherent community of practice?
  • What can practitioners in each bubble learn from each other? What will it take for the two bubbles to merge?
  • How can each group maintain its own professional identity (if that is deemed important) and yet work hand in hand with the other, to their mutual benefit?
  • What are the most effective ways forward, given the geoethical urgency of acting to slow CC?

The presentation will be interactive, as we will invite the audience to contribute their own ideas and experience.  If we are permitted to have breakout rooms, we will divide into small groups for a short time, and then bring everyone together for a plenary sharing.

How to cite: Crookall, D., Promduangsri, P., and Promduangsri, P.: Geoethics education and climate literacy: Bridging the gap – interactively, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1763, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-1763, 2021.

EGU21-6285 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Values in (climate) science: What model-based assessments of climate sensitivity teach us about value-judgements and demands on norms thereon

Sabine Undorf, Karoliina Pulkkinen, Frida Bender, and Per Wikman Svahn

The need for norms ensuring ethical decision-making in policy is well established, extending to decisions made in the scientific practice that informs policy. Values, including non-epistemic ones such as social values, may guide decision-making in the scientific research process where evidence supports more than one decision given uncertainty, and are thus targeted by many normative suggestions from the philosophical literature. How value-judgements enter the body of research that underlies climate change information, with its immediate relevance for urgent mitigation and adaptation decisions, and how the norms may apply here, is however unclear.

In a practical contribution to the debate on values in climate science, we discuss the process of assessing equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), an idealised property of the real world of high scientific and societal relevance that has as the ‘holy grail’ of climate science been regularly assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. We develop a framework consisting of the steps ​model building​, ​deriving ECS​, ​combining model results​, and communicating the findings​ along with the overarching choice of research question​ and ​publishing​, and present and summarise uncertainties, choices, and possible value-judgements involved in each step. We discuss this in the context of scientific objectivity, scrutinise existing normative, action-guiding literature on values, and suggest requirements for applicable norms and ideas.

We find that both epistemic and non-epistemic values are likely to come into play in scientific practice, with the latter arguably playing a relatively larger role further along the assessment steps. A review of existing literature shows that many of the norms proposed do not reflect the characteristics and complexities of assessments drawing on climate modelling: We find that, among others, it is particularly the distribution of epistemic agency; the technical nature of many of the choices; the unpredictability of a decision for further/future model outcomes; the multi-purposeness of models; and the type of value-judgements -other than risk preferences- involved that pose challenges for existing normative ideas. This calls for the development of new such framings more easily applicable to climate science, potentially guided by the insights presented including the step-framework suggested as a way to structure the analysis of the assessment process.

2.11.0.0

How to cite: Undorf, S., Pulkkinen, K., Bender, F., and Wikman Svahn, P.: Values in (climate) science: What model-based assessments of climate sensitivity teach us about value-judgements and demands on norms thereon, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6285, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6285, 2021.

The continuing acceleration of climate change and its impacts point to a need to consider climate interventional solutions. Climate restoration solutions can join climate mitigation and adaptation measures to bring a needed third option to climate stability.  Such solutions require thorough vetting through research and development, including climate modeling, materials evaluation, safety testing, and small-scale field testing conducted with permissions, transparency, and collaboration with the community, to allow careful evaluation of effectiveness, safety, and cost. International policy and governance are required to determine, given the information developed in the R&D, what solutions are in the best interests of humanity, so they can be funded and implemented at a scale to stabilize climate, in time to prevent or reduce climate-change-related harms. 
Ice loss in the Arctic, initially an outcome of global temperature rise, is now a driver accelerating global temperature rise, as the Earth’s Arctic ice cover has diminished rapidly. NOAA reported in 2018 that 95% of the most-reflective multi-year ice has disappeared over the past 40 years. The effect of this lost Arctic reflectivity is to increase the net energy influx to the Arctic, accelerating heating locally and worldwide, leading to increasing climate- related impacts on populations and ecosystems.
Arctic Ice Project’s focus is on evaluating and developing an innovative solution to artificially restore lost Arctic reflectivity using thin layers of hollow glass microspheres to reverse the increased summer radiative forcing from the Ice-Albedo Feedback Effect. We will report on the physical characterization of the HGMs proposed for this use, the approach taken for field testing and safety evaluations, and the strategy for evaluating and modeling where to conduct limited deployment of this restoration method to achieve the most leveraged positive impact.
Restoring Arctic ice reflectivity has the potential to be the largest single safe lever that could be practically and effectively deployed in the short term to give the world the time needed to complete the needed transition to sustainable practices, while reducing climate devastation. 
The Arctic Ice Project is focused on developing this needed information, through extensive international collaborations, to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a proposed localized intervention to restore ice reflectivity in the Arctic. 

How to cite: Field, L.: Evaluation of Safety and Effectiveness of  Localized Arctic Ice Albedo Restoration Method to Slow Climate Change Impacts, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16538, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16538, 2021.

EGU21-8597 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Co-production of knowledge: towards a co-design of geothermal heat utilization

Eva Schill, Florian Bauer, Katharina Schätzler, Christine Rösch, Melanie Mbah, Christina Benighaus, Sophie Kuppler, and Judith Krohn

In regions with favourable subsurface condition, geothermal resources provide a significant contribution to the reduction of man-made CO2 emissions. Its economic utilization often requires reservoir engineering that bears the risk of a number of environmental challenges such as induced seismicity, groundwater pollution or radioactive scaling.

In order to develop a socially feasible geothermal utilization concept in the Upper Rhine Graben close to the city of Karlsruhe we designed a research approach in which interdisciplinary (between natural and social sciences) knowledge production is combined with transdisciplinary knowledge production. This means that besides the collaboration of scientists of various disciplines, stakeholder and citizens s from surrounding communities get the possibility to take part in the project through workshops and interviews. The results of those transdisciplinary interactions will be integrated through translation into technical parameters in the technical design of a geothermal utilization concept. For the development of utilization scenarios, technical criteria were adopted into technical parameter ranges. Furthermore, socio-ecological criteria such as “no induced seismicity” are translated into technical parameters by an experience-based approach. The resulting scenarios are substantiated by numerical models that address the energy outcome. They will be reflected in a second stakeholder workshop. Finally, recommendations for a geothermal heat utilisation concept will be formulated.

How to cite: Schill, E., Bauer, F., Schätzler, K., Rösch, C., Mbah, M., Benighaus, C., Kuppler, S., and Krohn, J.: Co-production of knowledge: towards a co-design of geothermal heat utilization, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8597, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8597, 2021.

Geoethics is intended to provide a conceptual and practical framework for all human agents engaging with the ethical challenges that arise from their interaction with the Earth.  In recent years, it has chiefly focused on the professional roles of geoscientists and allied professionals.  Great progress has been made towards putting geoethics in its rightful place at the heart of all geoscience, elaborating and applying its principles across a wide variety of disciplines and sectors, and promoting its importance in geoscience education, training, research and professional practice.  Geoethical thinking has been developed and applied in the mining sector, through initiatives such as the IAPG White Paper on Responsible Mining, through multidisciplinary research on responsible and sustainable mining, and through responsible exploration, production and associated activities in mining companies. 

Addressing the global challenges expressed in the UN Sustainable Development Goals will depend on a vast range of mined raw materials.  It is vital that we find, extract, manage and use these resources in a responsible way, minimising environmental and social harm, and sharing the benefits we derive from them equitably.  But achieving these objectives cannot depend on geoscientists and their colleagues in the mining sector alone.  It will also require the active engagement of manufacturers sourcing raw materials across complex mineral supply chains; investors and other value chain actors; and a wide range of other stakeholders including civil society organisations, policy-makers and citizens.

There is rapidly growing recognition among this wider set of actors of the need for a transition to more sustainable systems of production and consumption of raw materials, and of the roles they can play in delivering these alongside responsible mining companies.  This presentation will consider the suitability of geoethics, as currently framed and articulated, as a basis for engagement and action by this wider set of actors, in particular for manufacturers seeking to behave responsibly.  It will draw lessons from a recent project to help a multinational consumer-facing company to develop its responsible sourcing programme, and will suggest how the principles of geoethics can best be operationalised and communicated in such settings.

How to cite: Bilham, N.: Responsible production and consumption of mineral resources: mobilising geoethics as a framework for mining companies, manufacturers and other stakeholders, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10403, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10403, 2021.

EGU21-5413 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Geoethics needs multi-dimensional research agendas and practice

Cornelia E. Nauen

Geoethics have been developed as global ethics to face grand challenges for humanity by Peppoloni and Di Capua in 2020. Complementary to the UN Declaration of Human Rights the proposal of a responsible human development charter formulates universal duties to demonstrate ecological humanism. Commensurate with the need to operationalise such ambitions this paper suggests a multi-pronged approach.

Similar to conversations focused primarily on other scientific fields research agendas and practice in the earth and marine sciences would benefit from a more representative participation of actors from all fields of knowledge, genders, geographical areas, ethnic backgrounds and world views. Journals like Nature and other high-impact publications start giving more space to voices arguing for gendered research, more opportunities in academia and publishing to women and under-represented societal groups to achieve higher quality research for beneficial approaches to societal challenges.

One essential aspect is identifying and overcoming their tacit and not so tacit discrimination with a view to enable the much needed diversification of perspectives, cultures and knowledge sources in the search for a more viable trade-off between different possible responses.

Another, often linked, aspect is to ask questions in ways explicitly addressing a wider spectrum of societal risks and benefits. This is particularly obvious in health research mostly based on white male participants in clinical trials with high percentages of costly failures. But as recently becoming apparent, it also applies e.g. to AI research, now an ubiquitous tool in many research, production and service areas. Among the responses is the obligation for European research proposals to address gender in most thematic areas, including the geosciences, a requirement that almost certainly needs greater attention to avoid tokenism.

Moreover, particular attention is warranted to seek understanding and solutions for and with the substantial small-scale and artisanal sectors in mining, fisheries and other natural resource areas reviewed in earlier research. While traditional social structures can be important in some regions, unintended consequences of demand in globalised markets with strong wealth stratification are prone to create opportunistic rushes. Such attempts to get out of poverty very often come at a high cost to human and environmental health.

These challenges are best addressed by interdisciplinary and otherwise diversified research teams and inclusive forms of field testing conditions and impact of measures. These should be able to cover the multiple dimensions through in-depth, interactive study and exploration of practical approaches with socially, economically and environmentally acceptable trade-offs. Investment in inclusive quality education is expected to underpin longer-term advances towards living the principles of geoethics.

How to cite: Nauen, C. E.: Geoethics needs multi-dimensional research agendas and practice, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5413, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5413, 2021.

EGU21-6311 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2 | Highlight

Earthquake loss alerts to save victims

Max Wyss, Philippe Rosset, Stavros Tolis, and Michel Speiser

Large earthquakes are unavoidable because globally the plate motions accumulate stress, which leads to ruptures of the crustal rocks hundreds of kilometers long. In developed areas, this brings buildings to collapse, which injures and kills occupants. Potential rescuers are never well informed about the extent of an earthquake disaster because communication along the rupture is interrupted. We have documented that the underestimate of fatality numbers lasts for at least the crucial first few days, often for weeks. For earthquakes that cause thousands of casualties, the extent of underestimation is usually an order of magnitude. To reduce this uncertainty of whether help is required and how much, we have assembled a data set and constructed algorithms to estimate the number of fatalities and injured within  an hour of any earthquake worldwide in the computer tool QLARM. Our estimates of the population and the makeup of the built environment comes from government and internet sources. For large earthquakes, the hypocenter and magnitude is calculated and distributed by the GEOFON group at the Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ) in Potsdam, Germany and the Geological Survey (USGS) in Golden, USA within 6 to 10 minutes. Based on this information, the QLARM operator responds with an estimate of the number of casualties within 30 minutes of the earthquake, on average. These estimates are available to anyone by email alerts without charge. Since 2003, the QLARM operator has issued more than 1,000 casualty alerts at any time of the day pro bono. The USGS delivers a similar service called PAGER, which is based on different data sets and algorithms. The two loss estimates are usually close, which should give governments and news organizations confidence that these alerts are to be taken seriously. The QLARM research group also publishes research results, estimating the likely numbers of future casualties in repeats of historical large earthquakes. In such efforts the QLARM group has discovered that, contrary to the general assumption, the rural population suffers more by an order of magnitude under very large earthquakes than the urban population. It is also clear that the poorer segment of the population in cities and countryside suffer more than the affluent members of society because the former’s houses are weaker and collapse more readily. To be even more useful, a worldwide data set of hospitals and schools is needed in order to provide first responders with locations and likely damage to these critical facilities. Crucially, reliable school location data would enable first responders to focus rescue efforts on schoolchildren who die beneath the rubble of their schools in the hundreds to thousands in large earthquakes. Unfortunately, such data are not available from official sources in most developing countries, and we are not aware of good alternatives. The data on schools in open data platforms such as OpenStreetMap is sporadic. UNICEF runs a global school mapping initiative, but we have been unable to obtain their assistance to date.

How to cite: Wyss, M., Rosset, P., Tolis, S., and Speiser, M.: Earthquake loss alerts to save victims, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6311, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6311, 2021.

EGU21-12746 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Detection of land subsidence phenomena in Kopais plain, Boeotia county, central Greece. Preliminary results

Elissavet Chatzicharalampous, Constantinos Loupasakis, Theodora Rondoyanni, and Issaak Parcharidis

Deposition of organic soils takes place in fresh water and coastal swamps. Due to water presence no oxidation procedure takes place and therefore organic material decomposes slightly. Balance is maintained because accumulation rate is higher than decomposition-oxidation rate. However, drainage of these areas disturbs this balance and creates the appropriate aerobic conditions under which organic matter oxidizes, usually with slow and steady rate. Oxidation is “accompanied” by land subsidence, the rate of which depends on the type of organic matter, depth of the aquifer and temperature.

Kopais plain has general W-E direction, is located in Boeotia county about 100km NW of Athens. It extends in an area of about 250,000 acres and came from the drainage of the homonymous lake, which was extending at the Eastern part of the basin with length of 23km, width 13km and maximum depth 4m. The bottom of the lake consists of a solid layer of clay up to 4 meters thick, rich in organic matter from the decay of plant debris. The lake sides were swamps covered with reeds, shrubs and flowering plants.

Mycenaeans who lived in Orchomenos town were the first to successfully drain the lake in 16th century BC carrying out important and impressive works. After the decline of Mycenaeans the drainage works were abandoned, destroyed and gradually, in the 13th BC century, the area flooded again and the lake was re-formed.

New drainage works were carried out in period 1882-1886 by "French Kopaida Company". On 1886 discharge of the lake took place and Kopais was drained again.

However, the organic matter located at the bottom of the lake (peat), immediately after drying, self-ignited. The fire spread throughout the whole area of drained Kopais and burned all the peat located close to the surface, resulting to the subsidence of the ground surface by 4m. Consequently, drainage works appeared to be suspended above the ground and unable to drain the water. In 1887 Kopais became a lake again.

In 1895 the English company "Lake Copais Co. Ltd” undertook the continuation of the draining project which was completed in 1931, with the drainage of 241,000 acres of arable land.

In the recent years due to climate change and occurrence of heavy rainfall, the plain floods and parts of it are temporarily turned back into a lake.

After drainage of the lake, the plain has been cultivated intensively. Also, stockraising activity and industry were further developed. Economic development brought the expansion of existing settlements and the creation of new ones mainly in the western area of the dried lake.

The current research presents the results of an ongoing  investigation revealing extencive deformations  causing damages to buildings and infrastructure at the town of Aliartos and at the villages of Alalkmones, Agios Athanasios, Mavrogia, Agios Dimitrios, Karya and Agios Spyridonas. It is considered that these damages are resulted by land subsidence, mainly induced by the oxidation of the remaining organic material but also amplified by water pumping for watering, industrial and livestocking purposes or even more from the natural compaction of the upper strata.

How to cite: Chatzicharalampous, E., Loupasakis, C., Rondoyanni, T., and Parcharidis, I.: Detection of land subsidence phenomena in Kopais plain, Boeotia county, central Greece. Preliminary results, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12746, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12746, 2021.

EGU21-8269 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Virtual outcrops: Field work on lockdown conditions using Drones

Fernando Borrás, Joaquín Hopfenblatt, Adelina Geyer, and Meritxell Aulinas

The year 2020 was full of challenges in many aspects, and it was not an exception for Earth Science education. Field work, which is the most effective tool for developing the capacity of spatial visualization of Geology students, was restricted, or even banned, during long time periods. The lockdown conditions highlighted the immediate need of techniques that “could” bring the field to our classrooms and homes through electronic devices.

The use of “Remotely Piloted Aircraft System” (RPAS), commonly known as drones, for geological purposes is increasing year after year involving different fields of geology, such as hazard assessment, monitoring, volcanology, structural geology among others. Drones allow obtaining, for an affordable price (compared to airplane or helicopter renting) and under safe conditions, updated aerial photography from any perspective resulting in a more efficient fieldwork. At present, there are different working teams using drones mainly for geological research purposes. However, those focused on teaching innovation systems by combining science and drone technology are still limited.

We propose the use of this technology to create 3D virtual outcrops with research or teaching purposes. Indeed, in those cases in which face-to-face teaching is not possible or the outcrop is located in a hard-to-reach or hazardous areas, virtual fieldtrips can be a valuable and safe alternative. Moreover, it approaches geological outcrops to people with physical disability or with reduced mobility promoting a more inclusive environment. Virtual outcrops also offer scientist, students and the general public the opportunity to visit, explore and study remote places all over the world with the possibility of creating a worldwide virtual catalog of outcrops with importance in Earth Sciences. Among other interesting applications there is the possibility of combining drone generated products with geographic information systems (GIS), photogrammetry and virtual modelling software’s, widely used by research institutions and universities which would open a full new scope of studies for students and professors.

Since the second half of year 2020, “Drones4Geology” cooperative, in collaboration with universities and research centers, is building a collection of high-quality 3D virtual outcrops and orthomosaics obtained from drone photogrammetry of different sites of Catalonia considered of geological interest, (e.g., Southern Pyrenean fold and thrust belt, Hercynian intrusive rocks of la “Costa Brava”) aiming to put these 2D and 3D tools at the disposal of students and researchers.

How to cite: Borrás, F., Hopfenblatt, J., Geyer, A., and Aulinas, M.: Virtual outcrops: Field work on lockdown conditions using Drones, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8269, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8269, 2021.

EGU21-14287 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Geological Hazards Focused Geopark Proposal, Armenia

Khachatur Meliksetian, Ara Avagyan, Lilit Sahakyan, Ghazar Galoyan, Hayk Melik-Adamyan, Arshavir Hovhanissyan, Arayik Grigoryan, Taron Grigoryan, Dmitry Arakelyan, Hrach Shahinyan, Kristina Sahakyan, Hayk Hovakimyan, Tatul Atalyan, Edmond Grigoryan, Marine Misakyan, and Seda Avagyan

This contribution refers to ongoing research project funded by the Government of the Republic of Armenia titled “Geopark as an impetus for sustainable economic development and environmental protection in Gegharkunik and Vayots Dzor Provinces, Armenia” currently implemented by the Institute of Geological Sciences of the Armenian NAS. 

Tectonically and volcanically active territory of Armenia, located in Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision zone, is characterized by a complex geological history and the presence of a mosaic of different geological blocks and terranes, for instance, continental blocks, ophiolites and arcs merged together by long-lasting convergent plate geodynamics. The presence of internationally significant geological sites combined with rich archeological, historical and cultural context strongly supports the idea of establishment of Geopark in Armenia, also taking into account potential economic benefits both at country level and for more than one hundred local communities.

The suggested area for the first Armenian Geopark comprises several thousand sq.km, mostly in Gegharkunik and Vayots Dzor provinces. The selected area Geopark is unique also in its diverse mountain landscapes and volcanic landforms. Given the presence of active faults, volcanoes and significant examples of volcano-tectonic interactions, as well as certain well-pronounced evidence of hazardous geological phenomena, such as surface ruptures, Holocene volcanism, tectonically induced landslides, sedimentological and paleontological evidence of past mass extinction events, geothermal activity, etc., it is proposed to establish a Geopark focused on geological hazards.

Post-collisional volcanism is one of the key features of geology of Armenia and volcanological geosites play a significant role in the proposed Geopark, particularly, some of Pleistocene-Holocene volcanoes, lava flows, lava tubes, lava falls, crater lakes, as well as thick obsidian flows with records of Paleolithic use and other sites.

To date, 40 geosites, classified according to geological phenomena having an international or regional significance, have been selected and documented according to local experience and international approaches. Some of the selected geosites are characterized by a complex geological record, with a long history of research and multidisciplinary studies.

The proposed Armenian Geopark aims at wider sharing of the accumulated geological knowledge with society and attracting tourists as a factor of sustainable development. It is suggested that the establishment of Geopark in Armenia will strongly support the protection of rich geological heritage and geoconservation, contributing to sustainable management of protected areas and spreading Earth sciences oriented knowledge and education in Armenia and beyond, in the entire region.

How to cite: Meliksetian, K., Avagyan, A., Sahakyan, L., Galoyan, G., Melik-Adamyan, H., Hovhanissyan, A., Grigoryan, A., Grigoryan, T., Arakelyan, D., Shahinyan, H., Sahakyan, K., Hovakimyan, H., Atalyan, T., Grigoryan, E., Misakyan, M., and Avagyan, S.: Geological Hazards Focused Geopark Proposal, Armenia, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14287, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14287, 2021.

EGU21-575 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

Applying the Values of Geoethics for Sustainable Speleotourism Development

Aleksandar Antić, Giuseppe Di Capua, and Silvia Peppoloni

Establishing sustainable and responsible speleotourism development is a major challenge and involves complex activities. Adequate theoretical starting point is the application of geoethical values related to the conservation and protection of the caves to be used for touristic purposes. Positive and negative cases of human behaviors towards speleological geoheritage are discussed, in order to highlight what should be done in cave management to avoid malpractices and on what elements could be founded adequate strategies aimed at promoting sustainable speleotourism. This is important to tourism management organizations involved in the promotion of caves and in creating economic opportunities for local populations, while respecting cave ecosystems. Modern cave management must be focused on the protection of the cave ecosystems, finding ways to achieve at the same time an economic development of local communities. But this approach needs the adoption of a geoethical framework of values to be shared by all stakeholders involved so that successful cooperation can be achieved despite differences in interests and expectations. The aim of this paper is to raise the awareness about the need to apply the values of geoethics to speleotourism, stimulating new fields of discussion within the scientific and technical communities involved in studies and activities related to geotourism and geoheritage. The possibilities of developing new ways to manage caves, in order to promote a sustainable socio-economic development of local communities, have to be balanced with the protection of natural environments as much as possible. The proposed theoretical frameworks have the goal to increase the discussion on the best ways of connecting speleotourism to sustainable and responsible cave management, presenting two case studies, and pointing out potential solutions.

How to cite: Antić, A., Di Capua, G., and Peppoloni, S.: Applying the Values of Geoethics for Sustainable Speleotourism Development, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-575, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-575, 2021.

EGU21-5794 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

AGI's Framework on Addressing Equity in the Geoscience Societies and the Challenge of Defining Success

Christopher Keane, Susan Sullivan, and Leila Gonzales

The American Geosciences Institute in cooperation with its member societies has developed the Framework for Addressing Racial and Ethnic Equity in Geosciences Professional Societies.  The geoscience societies are a pivotal area to influence the culture of the geosciences, and in response to the events of June 2020, many societies determined they needed to directly act on the issue of equity in the geosciences. Being birthed from a federation of US-centric organizations, the Framework has clear US-aligned approaches and boundaries.  However, the baseline proposed actions are fundamentally universal and meet the goal of the authoring committee to provide a framework from which we hope geoscience organizations of all types would use it to craft their own specific action plan and policies.   A critical component of this framework for the committee was to ensure definable actions were included.   Some of these suggested actions and their intended extensions will be discussed.  Additionally, ongoing conversations among the societies, with the US National Academy of Sciences Board on Earth Science and Resources, and other science organizations have begun to examine what the path forward looks like.   One area that AGI particularly is concerned about is the process of measuring progress.   Understanding and recognizing the impacts of efforts like this is critical to ensure agile responses for success.   But with AGI's intimate knowledge of much of the U.S. federal data, some of the ambiguities and definitional challenges within the US system complicates the ability to directly measure progress and for which further discussion of what success looks like is critically needed.  

How to cite: Keane, C., Sullivan, S., and Gonzales, L.: AGI's Framework on Addressing Equity in the Geoscience Societies and the Challenge of Defining Success, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5794, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5794, 2021.

EGU21-6988 | vPICO presentations | EOS4.2

The Global Network for Geoscience and Society: Connecting Science to Serve the Public Good

Gregory Wessel and Rose Hendricks

The challenges we face today, global warming, environmental degradation, resource depletion, habitat loss, and their associated social impacts, require coordination and collaboration between geoscientists and other societal stakeholders for us to craft effective solutions.  These same problems often require coordinated actions across borders, and the people trying to solve these problems, locally and regionally, often suffer from a lack of resources and insufficient access to scientific expertise.

It is especially important for geoscientists to participate in and advance a culture of civic science, in which societal needs and diverse perspectives shape science, and scientific discoveries inform public understanding, decisions, and policies. This is done by expanding our capacity to support scientists who engage with decision makers and members of the public, both individually and collectively. 

It is for this reason that a group of geoscientists and educators have come together to create the Global Network for Geoscience and Society.  Our mission is to strengthen cooperation and catalyze actions that support the global geoscience community by providing a network that enables collaboration and extends to all an opportunity to partner with others to advance resilience and sustainability.

Founded by volunteers from the GSA, the EGU, the AGU, Geology in the Public Interest, Geology for Global Development, the Geological Survey of Sweden, the Geological Society of London, and several universities and other organizations, the Network will bridge the gap between geoscientists and other communities so that they can collaborate to develop sustainable, context-appropriate solutions.  It will highlight opportunities for civic-minded geoscientists and others to address societal challenges related to natural resource exploitation, environmental contamination, natural hazards, and climate change. 

Building upon existing successful programs such as AGU’s Thriving Earth Exchange, the Network will create avenues to connect programs and people to advance resilience and sustainability.  It will provide civic science resources for geoscientists and advocate for effective and equitable collaborations to advance locally expressed development priorities.  It will promote the elevation of community voices that are not always heard, such as indigenous groups, women, the impoverished, and communities of faith, and it will establish a mechanism to advise community groups and organizations that require assistance with problems that involve the geosciences and sustainability.

If you are a geoscientist interested in sustainability, or if you represent a government agency, a foundation or nonprofit, or a forward-looking for-profit corporation, we invite you to join us.  Send us an email (info@thegngs.org) and we’ll be in touch.  

How to cite: Wessel, G. and Hendricks, R.: The Global Network for Geoscience and Society: Connecting Science to Serve the Public Good, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6988, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6988, 2021.

The IAPG (https://www.geoethics.org) was founded in August 2012 with the aim to increase the awareness of the geoscientific community on ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, research, practice, education, and communication.
In this perspective, geoethics has been initially developed in the context of geosciences, as a rediscovery by geoscientists, and in some cases as a real process of consciousness-raising, of the social role that they can and should play in support of society to face global anthropogenic changes.
Currently the IAPG can count on more than 2600 geoscientists (belonging to 130 countries) and its IAPG network includes also 32 national sections, working to develop geoethics by focusing on local specific issues of each country, and 3 task groups. Many international organizations recognize, appreciate and support results achieved by the association, through affiliations, agreements of cooperation and partnerships.
The IAPG has coordinated numerous publications, both books and articles, supports a book series on geoethics and a new scientific, open-access, not-for-profit, peer-reviewed journal on geoethics and social geosciences, and promotes a school on geoethics.
This presentation provides an update on the status of IAPG activities, and on future perspectives.

How to cite: Di Capua, G. and Peppoloni, S.: The activities of the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics: status and future perspectives, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2347, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2347, 2021.

EOS5.1 – Promoting and supporting equality, diversity and inclusion in the geosciences

EGU21-3231 | vPICO presentations | EOS5.1

COVID-19 lockdown effects on gender inequality: the case of the Italian Astronomy & Astrphysics Community

Laura Inno, Alessandra Rotundi, and Arianna Piccialli

Among European countries, Italy was the first to be heavily hit by the outbreak of COVID-19 and quickly decreed on 9 March 2020 that the entire national territory be locked down to prevent its further spread, establishing an unprecedented situation for its citizens, including researchers. Italy hosts a large (~2000) and lively community of researchers in the fields of Astronomy and Astrophysics, which contains the largest fraction of female researchers (~30%) among the world’s leading countries in astronomy (defined as the ones with IAU members >150). Therefore, the Italian community poses as an ideal testbed to investigate the consequences of the lockdown on research productivity, also by gender. 

In order to do so, we used the INAF and MIUR websites to compile a complete database of the Italian researchers, considered by gender, and matched it with the first authors of preprints posted on the largest preprint archive of natural science publications, arXiv, for each year from 2017 to 2020.

The submission rate over the previous three years is about 38.6 ± 8.2 (one standard deviation, σ) papers per month,  with the fraction of papers published by women consistently close to 30%, which well reflects the percentage of women in the community. As expected, the overall production in the first semester of 2020  (i.e. during the first lockdown) was lower than the average value estimated above. But if we break down this difference by the assigned first-author gender, we find that the decrease only concerns the submissions by female researchers, while submissions by male researchers actually increased during the lockdown by up to 10% (or a difference of 3.5σ).  We discuss this difference in productivity between male and female researchers during the lockdown as a possible reflection of the unbalanced distribution of the unpaid workload at home between partners.

How to cite: Inno, L., Rotundi, A., and Piccialli, A.: COVID-19 lockdown effects on gender inequality: the case of the Italian Astronomy & Astrphysics Community, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3231, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3231, 2021.

EGU21-8565 | vPICO presentations | EOS5.1 | Highlight

An impact of COVID-19 pandemic on research activities and work-life balance for geoscientists in Japan

Rie Hori, S., Natsue Abe, and Chiaki Oguchi, T. and the The Committee for Diversity Management and Talent Pool of JpGU

The rapid spread out of the COVID-19 continuous to have a great impact on not only social life but also academic and educational activities. The geoscience fields in Japan are no exception. The committee for Diversity Management and Talent Pool, Japan Geoscience Union (JpGU) launched an urgent survey between 28 June and 9 July, 2020 by. The goal of the survey was quantifying the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on research activities and work-life balance for geoscientists in Japan. The questionnaire was published two languages: Japanese and English. Although the questionnaire system was opened for a short period of time (12 days), over 400 answers were obtained, of which 351 in Japanese and 65 in English. The results revealed that activities of female geoscientists have been damaged by increasing burden of housework and childcare during confinement period by a state of coronavirus emergency, more than male. We present here some highlights of these results of COVID-19 survey by JpGU.

In the free text of the responses, there were specific and earnest appeals regarding the support necessary and expected. The support requests were targeted to various entities, namely JpGU, workplaces, schools, etc. The most common requests made to JpGU were to provide online educational materials and online lecture know-how, and to introduce virtual options to future conferences. Survey responders with childcare responsibilities pointed out the difficulties to attend conferences from home.

In conclusion, we need to reevaluate our consideration for the diverse members, possessing various background and impairments, who are easily left behind in the rapid changes, in academic activities due to COVID-19.

How to cite: Hori, S., R., Abe, N., and Oguchi, T., C. and the The Committee for Diversity Management and Talent Pool of JpGU: An impact of COVID-19 pandemic on research activities and work-life balance for geoscientists in Japan, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8565, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8565, 2021.

EGU21-12727 | vPICO presentations | EOS5.1

Diversity in ERC populations: applicants, grantees and reviewers

Claudia Jesus-Rydin and Luis Fariña-Busto

The European Research Council (ERC), Europe’s premiere funding agency for frontier research, views equality of opportunities as an essential priority and a vital mission to ensure credibility in the review process. The ERC monitors closely various demographic data yearly on every call and has taken actions to tackle imbalances and potential implicit and explicit biases.

This presentation is focused on demographic data for the three main funding schemes: Starting Grant, Consolidator Grant and Advanced Grant. Attention is directed mainly to gender and geographic distribution. The demographics presented here consider various stakeholders, such as reviewers, applicants and grantees.

After more than 10 years of existence, ERC data provides an insight on demographical evolution. In the first framework programme (FP7, 2007-2013), 25% of applicants were women. In the last years (Horizon 2020, 2014-2019), this percentage increased by 4%, with 29% of women applied for ERC grants. In the same periods of time, the share of women as grantees has also increased from 20% to 29%. In the last years, men and women enjoy equal success rates. This presentation also sheds light on the population diversity of ERC reviewers, both panel members and external reviewers.

The ERC knows that work to ensure equality of opportunities is never finished. This presentation analyses critically the institutional efforts and considers possible steps to consolidate the accomplished results.

How to cite: Jesus-Rydin, C. and Fariña-Busto, L.: Diversity in ERC populations: applicants, grantees and reviewers, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12727, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12727, 2021.

Geoscience is being increasingly embedded in collaborative research related to the management of natural resources and the environment, alongside engineering and social sciences.  Masters students exercise rigorous choices in selecting their study courses that enhance employability, considering carefully the kind of learning experience they are likely to have. The interdisciplinary M.Sc. programme ‘Global Management of Natural Resources’ (in Chemical Engineering, University College London, UK) has generated a lot of interest since its initiation in 2016. The geoscience module ‘Geology for Global Managers and Engineers’ (GGME), is a part of the above taught programme, studied by students from diverse academic background considered in four sets, namely, set 1 (geologists), set 2 (chemists, environmentalists, ecologist) set 3 (engineers) and set 4 (others, without science background such as economics and finances).

Traditional assessment methods for geology include written examination papers, field trip reports and essays and, practical based on hand specimen and microscopic studies. But, the role of assessment is no longer solely associated with awarding a grade but, should enhance inclusion and serve as effective teaching tools (Hounsell et al., 2005; Kaur et al., 2017). This can be better achieved by applying diverse assessment methods taking into account the different skill sets of the students, ensuring fairness and consistency with consideration of increased workload for both lecturers and students (Brown, 2012). Here we studied the effectiveness of multiple assessment for the taught GGME module including a combination of software based coursework, fieldtrip activities and hands on specimen studies, spread over the term, followed by an end of term multiple-choice questions’ based sit-in examination.

Our study indicates that prior academic background did affect students’ scores in the assessments. The students from set 4 had the lowest average score, although ~ 15 % attained higher marks comparable to set 1, attributable to a combination of factors including the set multiple assessments. The students performed better in course works involving smaller learning components where there was more time for reflection. But, they scored lower when the course works were set too early or late during the term. Assessing the same learning outcome by more than one method with provided feedback worked as effective, continuous learning activities with a reduced attainment gap in the final examination between the students from sets 1 and 4, for components already covered in the course works. Noteworthy that although the students were from diverse ethnic background, there was no attainment gap attributable to their ethnicity. A combination of assessment methods with both individual and group work components proved to be effective in closing any attainment gaps between diverse groups of students.

References

Brown, S. (2012). AISHE-J 4(2), 85.1–85.12.

Hounsell, D., Entwistle, N., Anderson, C., Bromage, A., Day, K.,  Hounsell, J., Land, R., Litjens, J., McCune, V., Meyer, E., Reimann, N. and Xu, R. (2005). Final Report to the Economic and Social Research Council, on TLRP Project L139251099.

Kaur, A., Noman, M. and Nordin, H.  (2017). 42(5), 756-771.

How to cite: Basu, S.: The importance of implementing diverse assessment methods in geosciences to promote inclusion, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15093, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15093, 2021.

Many institutes have equal opportunity or gender equality officers. They are usually responsible to ensure that equal opportunity and gender equality laws are applied at their institute but also offer local support. The actions from these officers might greatly help to improve equal opportunities and gender equality.

At MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany, a collective of three women was elected in January 2019 as decentralised women’s representatives. Our overarching goal is to advice and support all scientists and students at MARUM, as well as the director and committees, in the implementation of the legally-fixed gender equality duty (Bremisches Hochschulgesetz / Higher Education Act of the State of Bremen). As such, we have implemented several actions to promote gender equality at MARUM.

With the present contribution, we would like to present the activities with which we have been engaged and discuss how successful they were, in order to help other gender equality officers in their role. We also hope to hear about other successful actions that have been implemented in order to broaden our actions. Generally, we would like to discuss ideas of useful future actions and exchange with colleagues in this field. A long-term goal is to create a repository of actions which can be taken by equal opportunity and gender equality officers.

Our actions were implemented at a range of levels: directly with the women from MARUM (e.g. network meetings, support in case of conflict, pregnancy checklist), sensibilisation (e.g. invited talk on gendered wording in job advertisement, workshop on writing letters of recommendation, screening of “Picture a Scientist”), institutional (e.g. bi-annual meeting with director, meetings with the other gender equality actors at the university), monitoring (e.g. analysis of the gender of job applicants and selected candidates).

Most actions are very beneficial and well received. We feel it is profitable to act at these different levels, to provide support directly to the women, but also to inform a wide range of actors on gender inequalities. The resources we have at MARUM allows a funding of some activities, which is particularly useful. Because we are scientists ourselves, we have a good and productive exchange with the other women on a peer level. We are greatly encouraged and supported by the fact that people in leadership positions take us seriously and carefully listen to our opinion and feedback. A difficulty which we encounter is that, although the position of women’s representative is officially recognised by the law, we are not given specific time for it. Therefore, the work that we do as gender equality officer is done in addition to our scientific work.

How to cite: Lefebvre, A., Bender, V. B., and Schnieders, L.: Gender equality officers: which activities can we do to improve gender equality in STEM? Examples from MARUM women’s representatives, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4012, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-4012, 2021.