CL – Climate: Past, Present & Future

EGU22-2912 | Presentations | CL5.3.4 | Highlight | Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture

Decadal climate predictions, impacts of Arctic sea ice loss, and the signal-to-noise paradox 

Doug Smith

Many sectors of society are vulnerable to decadal changes in climate, which impact food security, freshwater availability, spread of pests and diseases, heat waves, droughts, floods, cyclones, wildfires, energy supply and demand, transport, migration, and conflict. On decadal timescales climate is influenced by both internal variability and changes in radiative forcing. Climate predictions that are initialised with observations are needed to account for all of these factors and will be reviewed in this talk.

Understanding the drivers of decadal climate is crucial for gaining confidence in forecasts. One hypothesis, namely that Arctic sea ice loss weakens mid-latitude westerly winds, promoting more severe cold winters, has sparked more than a decade of scientific debate. The Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project was developed to address this issue and results from coordinated multi-model experiments will be presented that support the above hypothesis and suggest that this effect is underestimated by current models. However, even when accounting for this underestimation, the response to Arctic sea ice is small compared to yearly variations in mid-latitude winters.

For predictions to be useful they must be skilful and reliable. There is mounting evidence that models may underestimate the strength of predictable signals, especially for atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic. This error has been termed the “signal-to-noise paradox” since it leads to the unexpected situation that models can predict the real world better than one of their own ensemble members. Skilful predictions can be achieved using a very large ensemble, but the model output cannot be taken at face value and needs calibrating to obtain skilful and reliable forecasts. Given the potential impacts of changes in atmospheric circulation, understanding why the signal-to-noise ratio is too small in current climate models, and assessing the extent to which correcting this model error would reduce uncertainties in regional climate change projections of the coming decades, are high priority areas for future research.

How to cite: Smith, D.: Decadal climate predictions, impacts of Arctic sea ice loss, and the signal-to-noise paradox, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2912,, 2022.

EGU22-1422 | Presentations | CL1.1.4 | Highlight | Milutin Milankovic Medal Lecture

Milankovitch Theory and Global Monsoon 

Hai Cheng

  The Milankovitch Theory of orbital climate change postulates that changes in the caloric summer half-year insolation (or Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI) at ~65°N latitude) drive changes in the ice-sheets extent (i.e., global ice-volume) at Earth’s orbital periods (i.e., the sensu-stricto theory). These insolation-driven changes in turn, incite ancillary changes in other parts of the global climate systems via various forcing and feedback mechanisms (the sensu-lato hypothesis). In this theoretical framework the high-latitude glaciation processes took the center stage while the low-latitude global monsoon was essentially excluded. In the last two decades, large numbers of cave d18O records with precise radiometric chronologies have propelled speleothems to the forefront of paleoclimatology. Of particular interest are the speleothem records from North America that reveal a persistent orbital pacing of the North American climate at the precession band, which is nearly in phase with changes in the global ice-volume and atmospheric CO2 but lags June insolation at 65°N by ~5000 years, in accordance with the sensu-stricto Milankovitch theory. Contrastingly, the low-latitude tropical speleothem records manifest an orbital-scale pattern of global monsoon, which is dominated by precession cycles with a nearly anti-phased relation between the two hemispheres. Importantly, the monsoon variations track summer (July/January) insolation without significant lags at the precession band. We thus suggest that precession-induced changes in summer insolation produce distinct climate variability in the ice-sheet proximal and tropical regions predominantly via the (delayed) ice-volume/CO2 forcing/feedbacks and nearly-in-phase monsoon/CH4 responses/feedbacks.

  As for global-scale millennial events that were superimposed on orbital-scale climate variations, the essence of these events—i.e., conventional ice age terminations and other smaller events (the so-called ‘low-amplitude versions of terminations’), is virtually similar. The time-series of millennial-scale variations after removing orbital insolation signals from the speleothem monsoon record and long-term trend in the Antarctic ice core temperature (δD) record characterize the millennial climate variances of both ice age termination and low-amplitude versions of termination events. Remarkably, the millennial-scale variations show significant obliquity and precession cycles that are in-phase with North Hemisphere June insolation, implying a critical role of changes in orbital insolation in triggering the ice age terminations. These observations, in turn, provide new insights into the classic ‘100 ka problem’.

  Indeed, a more comprehensive picture of orbital theory of climate is steadily emerging with the growth of new geological proxy data, particularly the low-latitude speleothem data from the vast global monsoon regime, providing critical complements to marine and ice-core data.

How to cite: Cheng, H.: Milankovitch Theory and Global Monsoon, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1422,, 2022.

EGU22-8246 | Presentations | CL3.1.2 | Highlight | CL Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture

Quantifying Causal Pathways of Teleconnections 

Marlene Kretschmer

Due to their relevance for regional weather and climate, teleconnections are an extremely active area of research. One key task is to quantify the contribution of a teleconnection to regional anomalies in both models and observations. This is, for instance, important to improve forecasts on time scales ranging from subseasonal to multidecadal, or to attribute ensemble spreads to changes in large-scale drivers. However, robustly estimating the effects of a teleconnection remains challenging due to the often simultaneous influences of multiple climate modes. While physical knowledge about the involved mechanisms is often available, how to extract a particular causal pathway from data are usually unclear.

In this talk I argue for adopting a causal inference-based framework in the statistical analysis of teleconnections to overcome this challenge. A causal approach requires explicitly including expert knowledge in the statistical analysis, which allows one to draw quantitative conclusions. I illustrate some of the key concepts of this theory with simple examples of well-known atmospheric teleconnections. Moreover, I show how the deductive nature of a causal approach can help to assess the plausible influence of Arctic sea ice loss on mid-latitude winter weather, thereby helping to reconcile differences between models and observations. I finally discuss the particular challenges and advantages a causal inference-based approach implies for climate science.



Kretschmer, M., Adams, S. V., Arribas, A., Prudden, R., Robinson, N., Saggioro, E., & Shepherd, T. G. (2021). Quantifying Causal Pathways of Teleconnections, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(12), E2247-E2263. Retrieved Jan 13, 2022, from

Kretschmer, M., Zappa, G., and Shepherd, T. G. (2020), The role of Barents–Kara sea ice loss in projected polar vortex changes, Weather and Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.5194/wcd-1-715-2020

How to cite: Kretschmer, M.: Quantifying Causal Pathways of Teleconnections, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8246,, 2022.

EGU22-133 | Presentations | CL0

Process-based GCMs evaluation over South Tropical South America during the dry-to-wet transition season following a weather typing approach 

Matias Olmo, Jhan Carlo Espinoza, Maria Laura Bettolli, Juan Pablo Sierra, Clementine Junquas, and Paola Arias

The representation of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) by global climate models (GCMs) is of key relevance for a better comprehension of the physical mechanisms behind the recent and future climate changes over South Tropical South America (STSA) in a global warming scenario. During the last four decades STSA experimented a lengthening of the dry season related to diverse forcings, leading to an increase in fire activity and severe socio-environmental impacts. In the present study, a set of 16 GCMs simulations from the CMIP6 experiment were evaluated during the historical period 1979-2014 in terms of how well they reproduced the atmospheric circulation over STSA through a weather-typing (WTs) approach. 9 WTs were first identified based on low-level wind anomalies from the ERA5 reanalysis, which summarized the atmospheric variations over STSA throughout the year. Focus was put on the representation of WTs during the SAMS initiation and the dry-to-wet transition season (from July to October). Model performance depended on the seasonal cycle and spatial structure of the WTs. Some of the GCMs adequately reproduced the different WTs and their spatio-temporal configurations, with lower skills in the transition seasons. Furthermore, GCMs tended to go from dry to wet conditions too quickly, evidencing deficiencies in the representation of the SAMS onset. This was particularly associated with a poor representation of the southerly wind intrusions to STSA and the intra-seasonal variability of the South American low-level jet. In terms of the relationship between WTs and rainfall on interannual time-scales, a selection of GCMs was able to associate the occurrence of anomalous wet and dry years with specific WTs, indicating well-represented physical processes modulating precipitation variability. Overall, this study could identify few GCMs that managed to simulate the main atmospheric circulation features in STSA (among them, the CESM2, CMCC-CM2-HR4 and MPI-ESM1-2-HR models), which is particularly important for driving high-resolution modelling experiments as well as for the analysis of future projections.

How to cite: Olmo, M., Espinoza, J. C., Bettolli, M. L., Sierra, J. P., Junquas, C., and Arias, P.: Process-based GCMs evaluation over South Tropical South America during the dry-to-wet transition season following a weather typing approach, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-133,, 2022.

EGU22-1953 | Presentations | CL0

Probabilistic Estimation of mid-Holocene global mean sea level 

Roger Creel, Jacqueline Austermann, Robert Kopp, Nicole Khan, Erica Ashe, Jonathan Kingslake, and Torsten Albrecht

Rising sea levels in the 21st century threaten coastal communities with inundation, yet projecting the relative and global mean sea level response to climate warming is complex. Lack of contemporary analogues for future climate dynamics has turned attention to periods in the geologic past that can illuminate how Earth’s climate system reacts to temperature forcing. Recent evidence suggests the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets may have retreated inland of their present-day extents during the mid-late Holocene (~8-3 ka), then readvanced until the pre-industrial. These findings have highlighted the utility of the mid-Holocene—when summer temperatures in the northern hemisphere may have neared 4 degrees hotter than preindustrial levels—as a partial analogue for future warming.

Here we present a new probabilistic estimate of mid-Holocene global mean sea level (GMSL). We construct an ensemble of global ice sheet reconstructions for the last 80 kyr that spans a range of possible mid-Holocene GMSL scenarios. We predict relative sea level from each model accounting for glacial isostatic adjustment and using a range of solid earth structures. We then compare these predictions to 10,733 postglacial sea-level indicators and weigh the GMSL curves from each ice model using data-model fits. The constraints placed on mid-Holocene global mean sea level clarify climate dynamics during this critical interval in Earth’s recent history, and enable new estimates of post-glacial Antarctic ice volume and the likelihood of mid-Holocene West Antarctic ice sheet readvance.


How to cite: Creel, R., Austermann, J., Kopp, R., Khan, N., Ashe, E., Kingslake, J., and Albrecht, T.: Probabilistic Estimation of mid-Holocene global mean sea level, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1953,, 2022.

EGU22-5004 | Presentations | CL0

Submerged beachrock: A tool for reconstructing relative sea level change example from Tekirdag coastline, Sea of Marmara, Turkey 

Ufuk Tarı, Gürsel Sunal, Orkan Özcan, and Cenk Yaltırak

The beachrock formations represent a significant paleo-environmental proxy because they can record both the vertical and the horizontal evolution of the coastline. They have been used to assess Holocene coastline evolution and crustally induced relative sea level (RSL) change, notably in the Sea of Marmara. In this study, we report existence of the less known submerged beachrocks in the nearshore coastal area of Tekirdag city (Altinova), the northern Sea of Marmara. The beachrocks found in the Tekirdag coastline are locally spread, parallel to the coastline with an extend of about 5 km and at depths ranging from -2 to 0m below present sea level. The beachrock is defined by a calcite-cemented shoreline sandstone. The cement mineralogy and morphology of the beachrocks are indicative of the diagenetic environment, and therefore the examination of the cement characteristics and microstratigraphy can allow identify the type of cement and spatial relationship between the past shoreline and beachrock formation zone.

The Tekirdag coastal area is located in the western Marmara Region. The western coasts of the Marmara Region include a number of natural features inherited from their coastal evolution. Besides, relative sea level change during late Quaternary in this region and its vicinity are generally not homogeneous as a result of the tectonic activity controlled by the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) which played a crucial role in the coastline evolution at different periods of the region.

The aim of our study to reconstruct the shoreline modification using beachrocks in the study area. For this purpose, we coupled a series of methodologies for the paleo-environmental and geomorphological study of the coastal zone and the shallow submarine area, which included: a) coring from submerged beachrocks, b) petrographic and microstratigraphic analyses of cementation, c) monitoring of underwater beachrocks and coastal zone by drone and e) dating the formation of beachrocks. Through our analyses we aim to better contribute the use of beachrocks as accurate proxies for the RSL variation in the study area.


How to cite: Tarı, U., Sunal, G., Özcan, O., and Yaltırak, C.: Submerged beachrock: A tool for reconstructing relative sea level change example from Tekirdag coastline, Sea of Marmara, Turkey, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5004,, 2022.

EGU22-5675 | Presentations | CL0

Late Holocene sea-level change in southern New Zealand 

Ed Garrett, Roland Gehrels, Bruce Hayward, Rewi Newnham, Maria Gehrels, Craig Morey, and Sonke Dangendorf

We present new proxy-based sea-level reconstructions for southern New Zealand spanning the last millennium. These palaeo sea-level records usefully complement sparse Southern Hemisphere proxy and tide-gauge sea-level datasets and, in combination with instrumental observations, can test hypotheses about the drivers of 20th century global sea-level change, including land-based ice melt and regional sterodynamics. We develop sea-level transfer functions from regional datasets of salt-marsh foraminifera to establish a new proxy-based sea-level record at Mokomoko Inlet, at the southern tip of the South Island, and to improve the previously published sea-level reconstruction at Pounawea, located about 110 km to the east. Chronologies are based on radiocarbon, radiocaesium, stable lead isotope and pollen analyses. Both records are in good agreement and show sea level several decimetres below present over the last millennium, before a rapid sea-level rise in the first half of the 20th century that reached maximum rates in the 1940s. Previously reported discrepancies between proxy-based sea-level records and tide-gauge records are partially reconciled by accounting for barystatic and sterodynamic components of regional sea-level rise. We conclude that the rapid sea-level rise during the middle 20th century along the coast of southern New Zealand was primarily driven by regional thermal expansion and ocean dynamics.

How to cite: Garrett, E., Gehrels, R., Hayward, B., Newnham, R., Gehrels, M., Morey, C., and Dangendorf, S.: Late Holocene sea-level change in southern New Zealand, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5675,, 2022.

EGU22-6484 | Presentations | CL0

Tracking ice-sheet dynamics by detrital feldspar Pb-isotope and 87Rb/87Sr dating during the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition, Weddell Sea, Antarctica 

Roland Neofitu, Chris Mark, Suzanne O'Connell, Samuel Kelley, Delia Rösel, Thomas Zack, Michael Flowerdew, and J. Stephen Daly

Antarctic ice-sheet instability is recorded by ice-rafted debris (IRD) in mid- to high-latitude marine sediment, especially throughout climate transitions. The middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT), 14.2 to 13.8 Ma, which marks the end of a significant warm period during the mid-Miocene, saw a rapid cooling of ca. 6-7 °C in the high-latitude Southern Ocean. This climatic shift was also accompanied by a global δ18O excursion of ca. 1‰, indicating a time of global cooling and significant Antarctic ice expansion (Shevenell et al., 2004). The MMCT is recorded by numerous IRD-rich sediment horizons in deep-sea sediment cores around the Antarctic margin, reflecting iceberg calving during times of ice-sheet instability. Resolving the locations of iceberg calving sites by detrital provenance analysis during the MMCT is also an important tool for forecasting effects of anthropogenic climate change.

Here we present results of a multi-proxy provenance study by using K- and plagioclase feldspar, selected due to their relative abundance in clastic sediment, and tendency to incorporate Rb (K-feldspar only), Pb, and Sr at analytically useful concentrations, thus enabling source-terrane fingerprinting. While Pb-isotope fingerprinting is an established method for provenance analysis of glaciogenic sediment (Flowerdew et al., 2012), the combination with in-situ Sr-isotope fingerprinting and 87Rb/87Sr dating is a novel approach. These techniques are applied to deep-sea core ODP113-694, recovered from the Weddell Sea, ca. 750 km from the continental rise in 4671 m of water. This location is ideal, as it acts as a major iceberg graveyard making it a key IRD depocenter (Barker, Kennett et al., 1988). Within the core, several IRD layers were identified and analysed with preliminary depositional ages of 14.09 to 14.26 Ma.

Our findings are consistent with predictions made by recent palaeo-ice sheet models (eg., Gasson et al. 2016), which predict the development of sizeable and discrete embayments around the continent, including the Weddell Sea. We argue that the IRD derived from the unstable sector associated with this embayment formation at the time.

Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P., et al., 1988, Proc. Init. Repts. (Pt. A): ODP, 113, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program).

Flowerdew, M.J., et al., 2012, Chemical Geology, v. 292–293, p. 88–102, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.11.006.

Gasson, E, et al., 2016, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 113, (13), p. 3459-3464, doi:

Shevenell, A.E., et al., 2004, Science, v. 305, p. 1766-1770, doi: 10.1126/science.1100061.

How to cite: Neofitu, R., Mark, C., O'Connell, S., Kelley, S., Rösel, D., Zack, T., Flowerdew, M., and Daly, J. S.: Tracking ice-sheet dynamics by detrital feldspar Pb-isotope and 87Rb/87Sr dating during the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition, Weddell Sea, Antarctica, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6484,, 2022.

EGU22-7988 | Presentations | CL0

Ancient Tillandsia landbeckii dune ecosystems and their potential to reveal past variations in coastal fog moisture during the Holocene in the Atacama Desert 

Claudio Latorre, Sergio Contreras, Andrea Jaeschke, Juan Luis Garcia, and Camilo del Río

Tillandsia landbeckii is a bromeliad that inhabits the hyperarid coast of the Atacama Desert where it survives solely on moisture and nutrients from fog. It does so by constituting a unique dune ecosystem that maximizes its fog capture potential as well as preserving layers of buried tillandsia plants. These buried layers can survive over multiple millennia and here we present data based on stratigraphic, radiocarbon, stable isotopes, and leaf wax analyses that we are applying to these ancient leaves and stems to reconstruct past variations in fog moisture and nutrient cycling. Some of the oldest buried layers date back to >10,000 14C yrs BP and our results show that both d15N and leaf waxes are capable of tracking variations in moisture changes although we observed significant variation in d15N values across living plants which may be due to the plants' age. Past variations in fog likely track variations in large-scale synoptic climate features such as the height of the Marine Boundary Layer and the strength of the Southern Pacific Anticyclone.

How to cite: Latorre, C., Contreras, S., Jaeschke, A., Garcia, J. L., and del Río, C.: Ancient Tillandsia landbeckii dune ecosystems and their potential to reveal past variations in coastal fog moisture during the Holocene in the Atacama Desert, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7988,, 2022.

EGU22-10055 | Presentations | CL0

Fjord sedimentary signature of the last surging phase of Pio XI Glacier (Chilean Patagonia) 

Loic Piret, Sebastien Bertrand, and Carlos Moffat

Proglacial sediments hold continuous and high-resolution records of past glacier dynamics. In this study, we examine the sediments of Eyre Fjord (Chilean Patagonia, 49°S), which is fed by Pio XI Glacier, to gain a better understanding of how the surging phase of a growing glacier is recorded in marine sediments. Pio XI Glacier has experienced a net advance of >10 km since 1945 and has had several surging phases that each last 2 – 3 years and occur every ~14 years. The last reported surging phases happened between 1976 – 1979, 1997 – 1998, and 2014 – 2018. Thirty CTD profiles taken in the fjord along one longitudinal and three transverse transects in February 2019 show that sediment transfer through the fjord during a quiescent (i.e., non-surging) phase in summer primarily happens by means of widespread (unchannelised) hyperpycnal flows that are 20 – 100 m thick. To assess spatiotemporal variability in sedimentation throughout the fjord, nine sediment cores were collected in 2019. Concentrations of short-lived radionuclides suggest a sedimentation rate of 3 – 20 cm/year. Sediment grain size and magnetic susceptibility, (CT) density, and inorganic geochemistry (Fe, Ti, K, Mn, Zr, Zn, Rb, Sr), which were obtained at higher resolution, were used as proxies for hydrodynamic conditions in the fjord. The longest sediment record holds fine glacial mud and low density sediments between 135 – 70 cm and in the upper 10 cm, which indicate relatively low hydrodynamic activity, likely corresponding to the quiescent phases before 2014 after 2018. Between 70 cm and 10 cm, the overall denser and coarser sediments intercalated with cm-thick sandy layers indicate higher hydrodynamic activity and flood events, most likely representing the most recent (2014 – 2018) surging phase of the glacier. Interestingly, the thickest and coarsest flood deposits seem to be concentrated at the top of the sediment unit that represents the surging phase suggesting that the floods are the most intense towards the end of the surging phase. Overall, these results show that quiescent and surging phases of surge-type glaciers leave distinct sedimentary signatures in fjord sediments, offering the possibility to use longer sediment records to identify former surging phases.

How to cite: Piret, L., Bertrand, S., and Moffat, C.: Fjord sedimentary signature of the last surging phase of Pio XI Glacier (Chilean Patagonia), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10055,, 2022.

EGU22-10174 | Presentations | CL0

Sedimentological facies characterization of Pliocene key interglacial-glacial intervals, IODP site 1361A, East Antarctic Wilkes Land margin 

Julia Gutiérrez-Pastor, Carlota Escutia, Francisco José Jiménez-Espejo, Andrés Salvador Rigual-Hernández, María Ángeles Bárcena, Robert McKay, and Cecilia Morales

Marine sediment cores containing a unique Pliocene paleoenvironmental record were collected from the East Antarctic Wilkes Land continental rise by the IODP Expedition 318 at Site U1361 (Escutia et al., 2011). Site U1361 is located in front of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) were, today, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is grounded below sea level (marine-based) and therefore more vulnerable to climate changes.

We have conducted a facies analysis using shipboard measurements taken during Expedition 318 (i.e., physical properties data such as density (GRA) and magnetic susceptibility (MST) and high-resolution digital images), complemented with continuous elemental geochemical analyses. In addition, we have conducted high-resolution siliceous microfossil analyses to characterize past “warmer-than-present” intervals during the Pliocene warm period (~ 3-5 Ma) and their terminations recorded in site U1361 between ~ 73 to 123 mbsf. Our study is complemented by a pilot high-resolution detailed work on siliceous microfossils conducted from 3.69 to y 3.56 Ma that captures changes in sea ice cover and oceanic conditions (Armbrecht et al., 2018).

Preliminary analyses show that sediments consist of alternating intervals of interglacial diatom-rich/bearing silty clay with dispersed clasts that are ~ 0.5 to 8 m thick, and glacial sparsely laminated bioturbated clays with occasionally dispersed clasts.  In general, interglacial sediments is characterized by lower density, higher MST values, lower Mn/Ti and Fe/Ti ratios, and high Ca/Al, Si/Al, and Ba/Al ratios. Bioturbated clay with any dispersed clasts has a marked opposite trend (i.e., higher density, lower MST values, lower Ca/Al, Si/Al, and Ba/Al ratios and higher Mn/Ti and Fe/Ti ratios). This changes in lithology, physical properties and geochemical composition record significant changes in paleoenvironmental conditions. However, each glacial/interglacial (and vice versa) period exhibit specific characteristics and diatom associations pointing to different sea ice conditions during the selected Pliocene intervalsthat can be indirectly linked to ice-sheet dynamics in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. The results of this study are relevant in order to understand the response of the EAIS dynamics and marine biota to an increase of the ocean surface temperatures during the transition from atmospheric CO2 concentrations similar to pre-industrial to concentrations close to present values (410 ppm).

This work has been conducted in the frame of projects H2020-MSCA-IF-2018-ANTICE-841980/CTM2017-89711-C2-1-P and is a contribution to the SCAR INSTANT Program.

Escutia, C. et al., 2011 doi:10.2204/​iodp.proc.318.105.2011

Armbrecht et al., 2018. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2017.10.008

How to cite: Gutiérrez-Pastor, J., Escutia, C., Jiménez-Espejo, F. J., Rigual-Hernández, A. S., Bárcena, M. Á., McKay, R., and Morales, C.: Sedimentological facies characterization of Pliocene key interglacial-glacial intervals, IODP site 1361A, East Antarctic Wilkes Land margin, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10174,, 2022.

EGU22-10609 | Presentations | CL0

Pre-satellite retreat of Thwaites and Pine Island glaciers: Recent results from sediment cores 

Julia Wellner, Rachel Clark, Asmara Lehrmann, Allison Lepp, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Rebecca Totten, Lauren Simkins, Michael Comas, Elaine Mawbey, Rebecca Hopkins, James Smith, John Anderson, Kelly Hogan, Frank Nitsche, Alastair Graham, and Robert Larter

Thwaites Glacier (TG) is thinning and accelerating while sitting on a landward-dipping bed, with an ice shelf that is rapidly disintegrating and losing its ability to buttress ice flow from upstream, and is in deep water that allows warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to reach its grounding zone.  Significant retreat of TG would trigger loss of ice across the region.  In recent decades, the mass balance of TG has become increasingly negative, suggesting that unstable retreat may have already begun.  The Thwaites Offshore Research (THOR) group has just completed four field deployments aimed at understanding the recent history of TG and neighboring ice, including Pine Island Glacier (PIG).  Three cruises on the RVIB N.B. Palmer, combined with sub-ice-shelf sediment coring, provide a suite of new data along the TG and PIG margins.  Data include multibeam surveys, 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler, over 100 new sediment cores, and high-resolution seismic profiles.  Break-up of floating ice cover in front of TG in 2019 allowed surveying of previously unmapped seafloor.  Major calving of PIG in 2020 allowed marine surveying over the locations where sub-ice-shelf cores were collected in the past, allowing direct ties between ice-based and marine work.  As of this writing in January 2022, we are entering into the Amundsen Sea for our third marine field season. 


Sediment cores record the history of grounding-zone retreat and ice interaction with the ocean over timescales from decades to several thousand years.  Proxies used to reconstruct ice and ocean histories include sedimentary facies analysis, diatom and foraminiferal assemblage data, and geochemical analyses.  Sedimentological analyses show a diverse array of lithofacies attributed to different environmental conditions.  Many cores across the region contain laminated mud with sparse gravel and sand, suggesting deposition of meltwater deposits. Downcore 210Pb measurements are used to create age models of the past ~100 years.  Combination of ages with facies models, including CT scans, reveals that the progressive detachment of Thwaites from pinning points began in the mid twentieth century, coincident with retreat of PIG (Smith et al., 2017) and with increasing advection of warm water onto the Amundsen shelf (Hillenbrand et al., 2017).  Conversely, Cranton Bay, to the northeast of PIG and separated from Pine Island Bay by a shallow sill, appears to be characterized by cold deep water and high productivity, allowing it to serve as an endmember different from the records obtained proximal to the large glacial outlets where CDW is impinging.


The satellite record of glacial retreat is inherently short.  Observations are accumulating about forcing mechanisms that can impact the stability of ice, such as increased CDW on the Amundsen Sea shelf.  However, without the time to observe the response of the ice, discovery of the forcing mechanisms is just half the story.  The other half of the story is completed by using the paleo record to see how ice has responded to drivers in the past.

How to cite: Wellner, J., Clark, R., Lehrmann, A., Lepp, A., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Totten, R., Simkins, L., Comas, M., Mawbey, E., Hopkins, R., Smith, J., Anderson, J., Hogan, K., Nitsche, F., Graham, A., and Larter, R.: Pre-satellite retreat of Thwaites and Pine Island glaciers: Recent results from sediment cores, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10609,, 2022.

EGU22-10721 | Presentations | CL0 | Highlight

Long term characterization of heat waves in Brazil and their impacts on mortality rates 

Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Beatriz N. Garcia, João L. Geirinhas, Ana Russo, Leonardo F. Peres, and Renata Libonati

Climate Change has increased the intensity, duration, and frequency of extreme weather events such as heatwaves (HW), which have impacts on ecosystems, economics, and human populations, including adverse health effects and the increase in the number of deaths due to the heat stress. However, there are still few studies evaluating the occurrence of adverse health due to HW in South America. Particularly in Brazil, regional differences in the effects of heatwaves are expected due to their continental dimensions, which makes it necessary to carry out local studies. This work presents a long term analysis of the occurrence of HW in the 14 major metropolitan regions (MRs) in Brazil, namely: Manaus, Belém, Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Brasília, Cuiabá, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Curitiba and Florianópolis. Observational temperature data (1970-2020) provided by the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) were used to compute the Extreme Heat Factor (EHF) index, which was used to identify and classify HW in terms of severity.  Significant and positive trends in the frequency of HW were observed over decades in all MRs, particularly in the north (Manaus and Belém) and central west region (Goiania and Brasilia). Particularly, from 2014 to 2019, all the MRs presented HW regime every year, including severe and/or extreme events. In general, the longest and the most intense HW in Brazilian MRs occurred in the last decade (2010-2020), with the exception of the 1997–1998 El Niño-related events. Daily mortality and hospital admission data from the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) were used to assess the relationships between HW and health. Results indicate excess mortality (observed to expected ratio) during HW events in the MRs studied, with the elderly being the most vulnerable age group, in agreement with previous studies. The cause of death and the gender susceptibility to HW were also analyzed, and the results vary among the different MRs. This work provides an extensive characterization of the occurrence of HW in Brazil and valuable insights for the implementation of public mitigation and adaptation strategies in some of the most populated regions of South America.

This work was supported by FIOCRUZ [grant VPPCB-003-FIO-19] and FAPERJ [grant E26/202.714/2019]. D.M.S. was supported by FIOCRUZ [grant VPPCB-003-FIO-19].

How to cite: Monteiro dos Santos, D., N. Garcia, B., L. Geirinhas, J., Russo, A., F. Peres, L., and Libonati, R.: Long term characterization of heat waves in Brazil and their impacts on mortality rates, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10721,, 2022.

EGU22-12297 | Presentations | CL0

Late Holocene sea-level change and storms in southwestern Norway based on new data from intertidal basins and salt marshes 

Max Holthuis, Francis Chantel Nixon, Malin Kylander, Willem van der Bilt, Jake Martin, and Thomas Lakeman

Most relative sea level (RSL) curves in Norway have been solidly constructed using sea-level index points (SLIPs) from isolation basins. Many of these curves show RSL falling at a slow and steady rate to modern sea level during the late Holocene, despite a lack of SLIPs younger than ca. 2000 years. Tide gauge records from southern and western Norway indicate that RSL may have been rising since they were installed (ca. 100 years ago), while the few RSL curves with one or two SLIPs younger than 2000 years BP hint that rates of sea-level fall accelerated during this period. This study aims to close the gap between palaeo and instrumental data by generating late Holocene SLIPs from low-elevation and intertidal basins in southwestern Norway. Geochemical analyses of the sediment cores from all the studied areas thus far suggests that marine influence has been increasing in recent centuries, possibly due to rates of eustatic sea level rise overtaking residual glacioisostatic adjustment (ca. 1-2 mm/yr) from the Last Glacial Maximum. Anecdotal evidence from local residents of Egersund, with family histories and records of past storm levels going back to the 1800s, confirm this. Discrete storm layers consisting of shell fragments in one salt marsh at the back of a sheltered intertidal basin, however, may be overprinting any subtle trends in recent RSL rise. Full results of multi-proxy analyses of 8 cores from four salt marshes and protected, intertidal basins with bedrock sills will be presented from the southwestern corner of Norway.

How to cite: Holthuis, M., Nixon, F. C., Kylander, M., van der Bilt, W., Martin, J., and Lakeman, T.: Late Holocene sea-level change and storms in southwestern Norway based on new data from intertidal basins and salt marshes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12297,, 2022.

EGU22-12629 | Presentations | CL0 | Highlight

Extending paleo-tsunami records south of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami patch, Sumatra, Indonesia: 2022 update 

Jedrzej Majewski, Geoffrey Richards, Patrick Daly, Adam Switzer, Nazli Ismail, Tomi Afrizal, Margaret Christie, and Benjamin Horton

Our team has previously built a ~7500 year tsunami history for the northern patch of the Sunda Megathrust. However, the paleo-tsunami history south of Aceh province and the 2004 rupture patch remains poorly understood. We conducted geological investigation to better define the boundaries of rupture patches along the Megathrust.


We utilized satellite imagery to pinpoint potential sites likely to archive evidence of paleo tsunami inundations and co-seismic land-level change. Due to the continuing Covid-19 pandemic and restrictions, our researchers from Singapore, and USA could not travel to Indonesia. However, because of the longstanding close collaboration between the Earth Observatory of Singapore and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, the project continued to progress. The Syiah Kuala University team investigated nearly 20 sites between Banda Aceh in the northern patch of the of Sumatra Megathrust and Padang in the south. Several sites preserved probable paleo-tsunami sediments. The paleo-tsunami sediments were identified from anomalous layers of sand in low energy environments where they would not normally occur, such as mangroves, coastal lowlands, and/or swales.

Here we present results of litho-, bio- and chronostratigraphical analysis from Susoh as well as preliminary information from sites along the coastline between Meulaboh and Padang. From Susoh we described stratigraphy from a series of cores to a depth of 4.75 m. The top 2.5 meters was dominated by muds typical of estuarine or tidal flat settings, but it is interrupted by three pulses of sandy muds. At 2.55 m we encountered a 0.2 m thick layer of course sand, underlain by a 0.5 m thick mangrove peat with a gradual transition into organic sandy muds and sands. Pollen analysis from the fine-grained organic layers indicate they were formed in a mangrove environment. Radiocarbon dating of the organic macrofossils from the mangrove peat indicate the tsunami event occurred post 1850 cal. yrs BP. Our research continues to improve our understanding of the Sumatran Megathrust.

How to cite: Majewski, J., Richards, G., Daly, P., Switzer, A., Ismail, N., Afrizal, T., Christie, M., and Horton, B.: Extending paleo-tsunami records south of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami patch, Sumatra, Indonesia: 2022 update, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12629,, 2022.

CL1.1 – Deep Time

EGU22-1701 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Variable Early Eocene continental hydroclimate in Central Europe? 

Clemens Schmitt, Iuliana Vasiliev, Alfredo Martínez-García, and Andreas Mulch

Predicted future climate scenarios share similar characteristics with the Eocene ‘greenhouse’ period. However, short-term Early Eocene terrestrial climate variability is still poorly constrained mainly due to the rarity of adequately resolved climate archives. This lack of information restricts not only the evaluation of past continental climate conditions but additionally limits regional climate modelling efforts but also the validation of model outputs. Here, we present highly-resolved biomarker-based (bacterial membrane lipid and leaf wax) paleoclimate data from the UNESCO World Heritage Site Messel Fossil Pit (Germany) that cover an interval of ca. 640 ka. The drilled Messel paleolake succession, characterized by finely laminated and frequently varved black pelites (referred to as ‘oil shale’) represent a regional climate and environmental archive from the latest Early to Middle Eocene (~48.0-47.4 Ma) of western Central Europe. Downcore mean annual air temperature (MAAT) reconstructions inferred from bacterial-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) show a long-term cooling trend and range from 14 to 22°C. High-resolution sampling within the basal and middle core interval reveal several short-term negative temperature excursions of 4-5°C, respectively. Moreover, we measured compound-specific δ2H and δ13C of excellently preserved odd carbon numbered mid- and long-chain leaf wax n-alkanes in order to estimate past regional hydroclimatic conditions. δ2H values of terrestrial long- and aquatic mid-chain n-alkanes show exceptional variations of up to 45‰ and 60‰, respectively. In contrast, δ13C values of long-chain n-alkanes are within 5‰ (-28‰ to -33‰) while mid-chain δ13C values vary by 11‰, ranging between -26‰ and -37‰. Our results indicate that the Early to Middle Eocene temperature history of central western Europe, particularly on short geological timescales was much more variable than previously assumed. We recognize two abrupt shifts in MAAT that coincide with lower δ2H values and therefore may point to either wetter climate conditions or changed atmospheric moisture trajectories. We emphasize that the long-term decline in estimated MAAT towards the top of the Messel section has to our best knowledge not been quantified from any time-equivalent terrestrial archive in Central Europe, but resembles Early Eocene cooling patterns well-documented from the global oceans.

How to cite: Schmitt, C., Vasiliev, I., Martínez-García, A., and Mulch, A.: Variable Early Eocene continental hydroclimate in Central Europe?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1701,, 2022.

EGU22-2042 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Mediterranean heat injection to the North Atlantic delayed the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations 

André Bahr, Stefanie Kaboth-Bahr, Christian Stepanek, Maria Carolina Amorim Catunda, Cyrus Karas, Martin Ziegler, Ángela García-Gallardo, and Patrick Grunert

The intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciations at the end of the Pliocene epoch represents one of the most substantial climatic shifts during Cenozoic. Paradoxically, sea surface temperatures in the high latitude North Atlantic Ocean increased between 2.9–2.7 Ma, against a background of global cooling and declining atmospheric pCO2. To investigate the origin of this high latitude warming, we obtained sedimentary geochemical proxy data from the Gulf of Cadiz to reconstruct the variability of Mediterranean Outflow Water, an important heat source to the North Atlantic. In fact, we find evidence for enhanced production of Mediterranean Outflow Water during the mid-Pliocene to late Pliocene. We argue that the injection of this warm water on intermediate levels drove a sub-surface heat channel into the high-latitude North Atlantic where it warmed the sea surface. We further used Earth System Models to numerically constrain the impact of enhanced Mediterranean Outflow Water production on the northward heat transport within the North Atlantic. In accord with the proxy evidence, the numerical model results show the formation of a sub-surface channel that funneled heat from the subtropics into the high latitude North Atlantic. We further suggest that warming of the North Atlantic realm by this mechanism might have substantially delayed ice sheet growth at the end of the Pliocene.

How to cite: Bahr, A., Kaboth-Bahr, S., Stepanek, C., Amorim Catunda, M. C., Karas, C., Ziegler, M., García-Gallardo, Á., and Grunert, P.: Mediterranean heat injection to the North Atlantic delayed the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2042,, 2022.

EGU22-2399 | Presentations | CL1.1.1 | Highlight

Reconciling South Asian Monsoon Rainfall and Wind Histories 

Anta-Clarisse Sarr, Yannick Donnadieu, Clara Bolton, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Alexis Licht, Frédéric Fluteau, Marie Laugié, Delphine Tardif, and Guillaume Dupont-Nivet

Cenozoic evolution of South Asian Monsoon and mechanisms driving changes recorded in the geological record remain highly debated. An intensification of monsoonal rainfall recorded in sediment archives from the earliest Miocene (23-20 million years ago, Ma) is generally attributed to Himalayan uplift. However, Indian Ocean paleorecords place the onset of strong monsoons around 13 Ma, linked to strengthening of the Somali Jet that forces Arabian Sea upwelling.  In this contribution we reconcile these divergent records using Ocean-Atmosphere and ocean biogeochemistry models. Our results show that factors forcing monsoon circulation versus rainfall are decoupled and diachronous : Asian topography predominantly controlled early Miocene rainfall patterns, with limited impact on ocean-atmosphere circulation. Yet the uplift of East African and Middle Eastern topography played a pivotal role in the establishment of modern Somali Jet structure above the western Indian Ocean, while strong upwelling initiate in response to the emergence of the Arabian Peninsula. Our results emphasize a polygenetic history of the South Asian Monsoon with multiple paleogeographic controls: although elevated rainfall seasonality was likely a persistent feature since the India-Asia collision in the Paleogene, the modern-like monsoonal atmospheric circulation was only reached recently, in the late Neogene.

How to cite: Sarr, A.-C., Donnadieu, Y., Bolton, C., Ladant, J.-B., Licht, A., Fluteau, F., Laugié, M., Tardif, D., and Dupont-Nivet, G.: Reconciling South Asian Monsoon Rainfall and Wind Histories, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2399,, 2022.

EGU22-2957 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Atmospheric variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter in a warm past and a future climate 

Arthur Oldeman, Michiel Baatsen, Anna von der Heydt, Aarnout van Delden, and Henk Dijkstra

The Northern Annular Mode (NAM) is the leading mode of atmospheric climate variability in the middle and high Northern latitudes in the present-day climate. Its most prominent regional expression is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a mode of variability that is well-known and has a strong influence on North Atlantic weather patterns. According to the IPCC AR6 WGI report, the current generation of climate models are ‘skillful’ in simulating the spatial features and variance of the historical and present-day NAM/NAO. However, what kind of NAM or NAO patterns can we expect in a warm future climate?

To answer this question, we have performed equilibrium climate simulations of a warm ‘future’ as well as a warm past climate. Specifically, we have simulated the mid-Pliocene climate, a warm (~400 ppm CO2) geological period approximately 3Ma ago, using a global coupled climate model (CESM1.0.5). Our simulations compare well to higher latitude sea-surface temperature reconstructions. We have performed sensitivity studies using a pre-industrial and a mid-Pliocene geography, as well as two levels of radiative forcing, as a part of intercomparison project PlioMIP2. But the question remains, to what extent can we treat the mid-Pliocene as an ‘analog’ for a future warm climate?

Looking at Northern hemisphere winter (DJF) sea-level pressure data, we find that the annular ‘belts of action’ move poleward partially due to increase in CO2, but mainly due to the mid-Pliocene boundary conditions. Over the North Pacific Ocean, sea-level pressure variability slightly increases with CO2, but greatly reduces due to the mid-Pliocene geography. The NAM seems to behave more ‘annular’ and less ‘sectoral’ or regional due to the mid-Pliocene climate boundary conditions. We will focus on the mechanisms that explain the differences between the past and future simulations.

How to cite: Oldeman, A., Baatsen, M., von der Heydt, A., van Delden, A., and Dijkstra, H.: Atmospheric variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter in a warm past and a future climate, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2957,, 2022.

EGU22-3321 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Modeling the evolution of central Asian drylands during the Cenozoic 

Ran Zhang, Zhongshi Zhang, Dabang Jiang, Gilles Ramstein, Guillaume Dupont-Nivet, and Xiangyu Li

The evolution of central Asian drylands during the Cenozoic is a hot topic in paleoclimate research, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigate this topic with climate modeling based on six key geological periods. Our results indicate that central Asian drylands have existed since the early Eocene, after which they move northward and become narrower. Although changed land–sea distribution and decreased atmospheric CO2 concentration promote the aridification of drylands, they only slightly affect the latitudinal distribution of drylands. By comparison, the growth of Asian high-topography areas, especially the Tibetan Plateau (TP), makes central Asian drylands move northward, concentrate in narrow latitudinal bands, and increase in intensity. Good model-data qualitative agreement is obtained for stepwise aridification in midlatitude inland Asia north of ~40°N, and the uplifted main and northern TP by the early Miocene likely forced drylands to change in this region.

How to cite: Zhang, R., Zhang, Z., Jiang, D., Ramstein, G., Dupont-Nivet, G., and Li, X.: Modeling the evolution of central Asian drylands during the Cenozoic, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3321,, 2022.

EGU22-4335 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Climate conditions of coals and evaporates in the Earth history 

Xiujuan Bao and Yongyun Hu

Coals and evaporates are the most commonly used paleoclimate indicators, regarded as representatives of humid and arid climate conditions in the geological record, respectively. However, the quantitative and systematic climate significance of coals and evaporates in the Earth history still unknown. Here, we perform a series of simulations to simulate global climate conditions of Phanerozoic, using an Earth system model CESM 1.2.2 and reconstructed paleotopographies (Scotese, 2018). Combining with a global-scale complication of coals and evaporate from the present back to Devonian (Boucot et al., 2013), climate variables of annual average surface temperature (AAST), annual average precipitation (AAP) and annual average net precipitation (AANP) of the area where coals and evaporates formed are extracted for analysing quantitative climate conditions of coals and evaporates. The preliminary results show that (1) AAST of evaporate areas vary with global mean temperature, while the variation of coals areas’ AAST reflect a stage change,which are consistent with the stage evolution of land plant and lignin-degrading fungi; (2) AAP and AANP of coals and evaporates areas are relatively stable through the Earth history. Coals areas have general more AAP and AANP than evaporates in 25%-75% quantiles but have similar range with evaporites areas in 5%-95% quantiles.


Key words: coals, evaporates, plant evolution, deep-time climate, numerical simulation


Scotese C R, 2018. PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas Rasters[J].

Boucot A J, Chen X, Scotese C R, 2013. Lithology Data Tables[J].

How to cite: Bao, X. and Hu, Y.: Climate conditions of coals and evaporates in the Earth history, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4335,, 2022.

EGU22-4906 | Presentations | CL1.1.1 | Highlight

Evolution of Dust and Its Climatic Impact during Earth’s History 

Yonggang Liu, Qifan Lin, Ming Zhang, Peng Liu, Jian Zhang, and Zhengyu Liu

Dust, as one of the most common types of atmospheric aerosol, affects climate in many different ways. Atmospheric dust scatters and absorbs sunlight and reduces solar radiation received at the surface; it absorbs and emits longwave radiation, having a greenhouse effect; it has a complex indirect effect on climate by serving as cloud nuclei; when deposited on snow or ice, it reduces the surface albedo and warms the surface. Despite its importance in the climate system, how the dust emission and atmospheric dust loading varied during the Earth history is unclear. Here I will give a summary of the atmospheric dust loading as well as its climatic impact for a few typical periods of the Earth. All the results are from numerical simulations and are still premature due to uncertainties in vegetation cover and soil erodibility, and biases and inability of the climate model used.

In present day, the atmospheric dust loading is slightly more than 20 Tg, and has a small impact on the global climate. Such dust loading was diminished during the mid-Holocene (~6 thousand years ago; 6 ka) and the reduced dust induced a very slight global warming (~0.1 °C) but a cooling of the Northern Hemisphere by weakening the Atlantic meridional ocean circulation (AMOC). During the cold last glacial maximum (~21 ka), the atmospheric dust loading was ~2-3 times that of present day. Had not been this dust, the LGM climate would have been colder by ~2 °C and AMOC weaker by ~30%. Clearly, the snow-darkening effect of dust was dominative during this cold time period. For earlier periods with different continental configurations, the atmospheric dust loading also varied significantly. For 80 million years ago (Ma), the continents were dispersive and the total area of the continents was small, the atmospheric dust loading was only ~1.4 Tg. For 240 Ma, the continents clustered into a supercontinent and centered around the equator, the atmospheric dust loading ~21 Tg. For a continental configuration (130 Ma) that had an area in between 80 Ma and 240 Ma, the atmospheric dust loading was ~6.1 Tg. The dust had a cooling effect of <1 °C in all these three periods. For time periods earlier than 400 Ma when land vegetation had not evolved yet, the atmospheric dust loading could have been ~10 times of present day and cooled the climate by ~10 °C. However, such cooling effect disappeared and became a warming effect when the climate was entering a snowball Earth state, due to stronger and stronger snow-darkening effect.

Overall, there was more dust during a cold time period due to stronger winds, weaker hydrological cycle and more dust sources, and the dust had a warming effect to the climate. During the warm time periods, dust tended to have a cooling effect because there was too little snow and ice for the snow darkening by dust to be effective. There was also more dust during periods when the area of continents was larger and more clustered, due to drier land surface.

How to cite: Liu, Y., Lin, Q., Zhang, M., Liu, P., Zhang, J., and Liu, Z.: Evolution of Dust and Its Climatic Impact during Earth’s History, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4906,, 2022.

EGU22-5167 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Snowball Earth initiation and the thermodynamics of sea ice 

Johannes Hörner, Aiko Voigt, and Christoph Braun

Snowball Earth is a hypothesized state in the deep past of Earth in which the ocean was completely or nearly completely covered by sea ice, resulting from a runaway ice-albedo feedback. Here, we address how the treatment of sea-ice thermodynamics affects the initiation of a Snowball Earth in the global climate model ICON-A run in an idealized slab-ocean aquaplanet setup. Specifically, we study the impact of vertical resolution and brine pockets of ice by comparing the 3-layer Winton and a 0-layer Semtner scheme, and we investigate the impact of limiting ice thickness to 5m.

The internal heat storage of ice is increased by higher vertical resolution and brine pockets, which weakens surface melting and increases global albedo by allowing snow and ice to persist longer into the summer season. The internal heat storage weakens the melt-ratchet effect, as is confirmed with offline simulations with the two ice schemes. The result is a substantially easier Snowball Earth initiation and an increase in the critical CO2 for Snowball initiation by 50%. Limiting ice thickness impedes Snowball initiation as the removal of excess ice leads to an artificial heat source. Yet, the impact is minor and critical is decreased by 5% only.

The results show that while the sea-ice thickness limit plays only a minor role, the internal heat storage of ice represents an important factor for Snowball initiation and needs to be taken into account when modeling Snowball Earth initiation.

How to cite: Hörner, J., Voigt, A., and Braun, C.: Snowball Earth initiation and the thermodynamics of sea ice, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5167,, 2022.

EGU22-5586 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Mid-Pliocene North American Monsoon in Weather Resolving Coupled Simulations 

Mary Grace Albright, Ran Feng, Jiang Zhu, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Hui Li, and Tripti Bhattacharya

The North American Southwest (SW NA) has recently experienced periods of extreme drought, largely due to an increased intensity in evaporation. Yet, there remains large uncertainty in the predicted future changes of precipitation over this region. As a result, the future of SW NA hydroclimate remains uncertain.  The North American Monsoon (NAM) is an atmospheric circulation feature of SW NA hydroclimate that is generated by interactions between topography and moisture surge from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico.  Previous research has shown a weakened NAM in response to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2.  However, when analyzing proxy paleoclimate reconstructions during the Pliocene, various records suggest wetter conditions during that time.  We use the mid-Pliocene (3.3 – 3.0 Millions of years ago) as an analog for ongoing climate change because this interval featured topography, geography, and biome assemblages similar to today, but a warmer global mean temperature by 2 - 4 °C compared to pre-industrial, and a sustained 400 ppm CO2.  Here we are testing whether a high resolution simulation (25 km) can better capture the NAM and provide different sensitivity to boundary conditions compared to low resolution (100 km) simulations, using the same Community Earth System Model.  Increased resolution has been shown to improve the representation of features within the NAM for simulations of the present.   Our pre-industrial simulations display a more extensive monsoon region with high spatial resolution, which indicates a dependency of simulated NAM on resolving topographic features such as the Rockies, Basin and Range, and Gulf of California, all of which can only be captured at high spatial resolutions.  Simulations of the mid-Pliocene displayed weakened NAM precipitation along the west coast of the southwestern North America at a low resolution when compared to the pre-industrial run.  Yet, this weakening signal is limited to the Pacific side of the orographic slopes in the high resolution simulation, with the rest of the monsoon region featuring increased precipitation.  Ongoing work will explore the sources for this resolution dependency, and will quantify contributions of mesoscale systems, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones, to precipitation in the monsoon region.

How to cite: Albright, M. G., Feng, R., Zhu, J., Otto-Bliesner, B., Li, H., and Bhattacharya, T.: Mid-Pliocene North American Monsoon in Weather Resolving Coupled Simulations, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5586,, 2022.

EGU22-5621 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Spatial heterogeneity of the Late Miocene Biogenic Bloom 

Quentin Pillot, Baptiste Suchéras-Marx, Anta-Clarisse Sarr, Clara Bolton, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, and Yannick Donnadieu

The late Miocene and early Pliocene is marked by a major
oceanographic and geological event called the Late Miocene Biogenic
Bloom (LMBB). This event is characterized by high accumulation rates of
opals from diatoms and high calcite accumulation rates from calcareous
nannofossils and planktic foraminifera. The LMBB extends over several
million years and is present in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Two
hypotheses have emerged from the literature to explain this event: a
global increase in the supply of nutrients to ocean basins through chemical
alteration of the continents and/or a major redistribution of nutrients in the
oceans. The objective of this study is to provide a more comprehensive
look at the temporal and geographical aspects of the LMBB. We have
compiled ocean drilling data (ODP-IODP) covering the late Miocene and
early Pliocene. This compilation contains sedimentation rates as well as
CaCO3, opal and terrigenous accumulation rates. After a careful screening
of the database, checking that all data are on the same time scale, we first
work on global trends of sedimentation and biogenic production before
going into more details. For instance, we show that the magnitude of the
Biogenic Bloom strongly varied between the three oceanic basins.
Normalization to a post-LMBB state allows comparison of rates of increase
in CaCO3 accumulation in different geographical areas (grouping several
sites). A very strong LMBB signature is present in oceanic area bordering
the western side of Australia. In the Atlantic Ocean, it is mainly present
near the equator and over South Africa. The LMBB signature is less
pronounced in the Indian Ocean but remains trackable near the northern
coasts of the basin. Moreover, it is also heterogeneous in terms of the
mineralogy produced and deposited in the deep ocean between regions.
For example, in the equatorial eastern Pacific, the LMBB signature is
present in the silica accumulation term but not in carbonates accumulation
one. Outputs from coupled ocean/atmosphere models (IPSL-CM5A2) using
late Miocene paleogeography and integrating a marine biogeochemistry
module (PISCES) have been gathered and will be discussed in regard to
our database.

How to cite: Pillot, Q., Suchéras-Marx, B., Sarr, A.-C., Bolton, C., Ladant, J.-B., and Donnadieu, Y.: Spatial heterogeneity of the Late Miocene Biogenic Bloom, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5621,, 2022.

EGU22-6006 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Drivers and consequences of a stronger mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 

Julia Weiffenbach, Michiel Baatsen, and Anna von der Heydt

The mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP, ~3.3 – 3 Ma) is the most recent geological period with a CO2 concentration similar to the present day (~400 ppm). The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PlioMIP2) focuses on the KM5c time slice (3.205 Ma), giving insight into the climate dynamics of this period. Sea surface temperature (SST) proxies indicate amplified warming over the North Atlantic in the mPWP with respect to the pre-industrial period, which may be linked to an intensified Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Zhang et al. (2021) reported a stronger mPWP AMOC in all the PlioMIP2 simulations but found no consistent relation to either the Atlantic northward ocean heat transport (OHT) or average North Atlantic SSTs. We therefore look further into the drivers and consequences of a stronger AMOC in the mPWP compared to pre-industrial simulations.

Within the PlioMIP2 ensemble, we find that all model simulations with a closed Bering Strait and Canadian Archipelago show strongly reduced freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic. The resulting increase in sea surface salinity in the subpolar North Atlantic and Labrador Sea stimulates deepwater formation in these areas. The stronger AMOC is therefore primarily a response to the closure of the Arctic gateways. We also look at the different components of the Atlantic OHT, associated with either the overturning circulation or the wind-driven gyre circulation. While the ensemble mean of the overturning component is increased significantly in magnitude in the mPWP, it is partly compensated by a reduced gyre component. Our results point towards a complex interplay between atmospheric and oceanic processes and indicate that considering these components separately allows for a better understanding of the climatic response to the AMOC strength.

How to cite: Weiffenbach, J., Baatsen, M., and von der Heydt, A.: Drivers and consequences of a stronger mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6006,, 2022.

EGU22-6721 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

The Impact of Angiosperms Physiological Evolution on Earth Systems 

Jiaqi Guo, Yongyun Hu, and Yonggang Liu

The physiological evolution of vegetation affects the interaction between vegetation and climate. Angiosperms have higher leaf vein density than all other plants throughout evolutionary history, contributing to higher transpiration capacities. However, the climatic response to changes in physiological functions of angiosperms has remained to be determined. Here, Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.2.2 and BIOME4 vegetation model are applied to simulate the world without angiosperms by reducing the maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax) to 1/4 (Boyce et al, 2009), in conditions of both fixed and non-fixed vegetation distribution. First, we maintain the pre-industrial vegetation distribution, the results illustrate that the world without angiosperms would have less productivity, higher global mean temperature, consisting with the results of Boyce and Lee (Boyce and Lee, 2010). In addition, the warmer southern hemisphere and colder northern hemisphere are identified, which are caused by the decrease of the strength of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Second, we consider changes of vegetation structure, the results show that temperature and precipitation would vary significantly locally, and the area of tropical forest would decline sharply in the world without angiosperms, which may affect biodiversity. The evolution of physiological functions of angiosperms influences climate and provides potential competitive advantages for angiosperms to dominate modern vegetation.

How to cite: Guo, J., Hu, Y., and Liu, Y.: The Impact of Angiosperms Physiological Evolution on Earth Systems, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6721,, 2022.

EGU22-6804 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Dynamics and variability of the Late Permian climate-carbon state in an Earth System Model 

Daniel Burt, Tatiana Ilyina, and Thomas Kleinen

The Late Permian climate is the background state for the climate perturbations which lead to the
Permian-Triassic Boundary (~252 Ma). The Permian-Triassic Boundary mass extinction is well established as
the largest of Earth’s mass extinctions with an estimated 90% loss of species. Climate perturbations linked to
carbon emissions from Siberian Trap volcanism are attributed as the drivers of the mass extinction through
extreme temperature increases and changes in ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. Fully-coupled Earth
System Models are required to investigate the sensitivities and feedbacks of the system to these widespread
climate perturbations. The Late Permian climate is simulated with a modified version of the Max Planck
Earth System Model v1.2 similar to that used in the 6th -phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project.
Geochemical and palaeobiological proxy data are used to constrain the boundary conditions of the modelled
climate state.
The simulated Late Permian climate state is characterised by a 100 year global mean 2 m surface air
temperature of 19.7°C, rising up to 37.7°C in the low-latitude continental interior. Prevailing 100 year global
mean total precipitation patterns indicate that the continental interior was largely arid from ~50°N to ~50°S and
a rainfall maximum of up to 6.5 mm day-1 is present at the equatorial boundary of the Tethys and Panthalassic
Oceans. Dynamic terrestrial vegetation in the model is dominated by woody single-stemmed evergreens and
soft-stemmed plant functional groups. The 100 year global mean surface ocean of the Late Permian illustrates
a warm-pool across the equatorial boundary between the Tethys and Panthalassic Oceans with a maximum
temperature of 31.7°C decreasing to temperatures as low as -1.9°C near the poles. Surface salinities vary
broadly across the global oceans with 100 year global mean values ranging from 21.9, in well flushed regions
of strong freshwater flux, to 49.2, in low-latitude regions of restricted exchange. Large-scale seasonal mixing
below 60°S in the Panthalassic Ocean dominates the global meridional overturning circulation. These model
data fit within the bounds represented by the available proxy data for the Late Permian. Additionally, I will
present first results of the ocean biogeochemical state in the Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model with an
extended Nitrogen-cycle. I will also illustrate the results of our investigation into the influence of the Late
Permian monsoon variability on the terrestrial vegetation and ocean carbon cycles.

How to cite: Burt, D., Ilyina, T., and Kleinen, T.: Dynamics and variability of the Late Permian climate-carbon state in an Earth System Model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6804,, 2022.

EGU22-6918 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Influence of Dust on Climate during the late Palaeozoic ice age 

Qifan Lin and Yonggang Liu

Dust in the atmosphere affects climate by directly absorbing and scattering solar radiation. In present days, most of dust is emitted from dry regions over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula. It has been shown that it impact on global mean surface temperature, African monsoon, the number of tropical cyclones over the Atlantic Ocean, ENSO variability and the strength of Atlantic meridional ocean circulation (AMOC). The climate of late Paleozoic ice age bears some similarity to late Cenozoic climate. However, late Paleozoic ice age was a period of continental convergence and supercontinents formation. On different continental configurations, the area of dry regions may vary considerably, so that dust emissions and atmospheric dust loading changed accordingly. As  expected, the impact of dust on climate during this period was also very different from that of present days. In this work, we use the fully coupled global climate model CESM1.2.2 to examine the influence of dust on climate during late Palaeozoic ice age. Dust aerosols simulated by bulk aerosol model alter atmospheric radiation through scattering and absorbing both shortwave and longwave radiation. Results show that during late Palaeozoic ice age, sources of dust were mainly distributed on the western continent in the subtropics. The total amount of the atmospheric dust loading was less than that of present days due to the smaller subtropical continental area. Such dust induced a significant cooling of surface temperature at low latitudes by altering radiation. Dust falling on southern hemisphere continents covered by ice and snow caused a rising of surface temperature.

How to cite: Lin, Q. and Liu, Y.: Influence of Dust on Climate during the late Palaeozoic ice age, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6918,, 2022.

EGU22-7520 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Meridional temperature gradients during the past 250 million years: Proxies versus Models 

Mengyu Wei, Jun Yang, Yongyun Hu, Yonggang Liu, Xiang Li, Xiujuan Bao, Jiaqi Guo, Jiawenjing Lan, Zhibo Li, Qifan Lin, Kai Man, Zihan yin, and Shuai Yuan

In this study, we investigate the meridional temperature gradients during the past 250 million years. We compare the differences between proxy data of oxygen isotopes and lithologic indicators and globally coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system model simulation results. Two climate models are employed, CESM1.2.2 and HadleyCM3. There are several significant differences between the model results and Scotese’s reconstruction and proxy data: 1) the tropical surface temperatures are usually higher in the model simulations than both Scotese’s reconstruction (Scotese 2016; Scotese et al. 2021) and proxy data (e.g., Huber and Caballero 2012, Song et al. 2019; Zhu et al. 2019), whereas the surface temperatures in high latitudes are usually lower; 2) the meridional temperature gradients in the model simulations are smaller in low latitudes but larger in the middle latitudes than Scotese’s reconstruction. These comparisons are helpful for paleoclimatology understanding and for future paleo-temperature reconstructions.

How to cite: Wei, M., Yang, J., Hu, Y., Liu, Y., Li, X., Bao, X., Guo, J., Lan, J., Li, Z., Lin, Q., Man, K., yin, Z., and Yuan, S.: Meridional temperature gradients during the past 250 million years: Proxies versus Models, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7520,, 2022.

EGU22-7744 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Hafnium-neodymium isotope evidence for enhanced weathering and tectonic-climate interactions during the Late Cretaceous 

Pauline Corentin, Emmanuelle Pucéat, Pierre Pellenard, Michel Guiraud, Justine Blondet, Nicolas Freslon, Germain Bayon, and Thierry Adatte

Over million-year timescale the carbon cycle evolution is driven by mantle CO2 degassing (source) and by continental weathering that drawdowns atmospheric CO2 through silicate weathering reactions (sink). Based on a novel geochemical proxy of chemical weathering intensity (i.e. using measurements of Hf and Nd isotope ratios in clay-size fractions of sediments) and clay mineralogy, we discuss the links between tectonic, continental weathering and climate evolution during the late Cretaceous. That period records the very first step of the last greenhouse to icehouse transition and is concomitant to major uplift phases affecting the African and South-American margins.

Two sites along the South American Atlantic margin (ODP 356 and 1259) were targeted based on their relatively complete record of upper Cretaceous sediments. At Site 356, our results indicate the occurrence of enhanced chemical weathering during the Campanian and Maastrichtian following the uplift of the Southeastern Brazilian margin that promoted the establishment of more hydrolysing conditions.

At Demerara Rise (Site 1259), our data suggest a coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, which may be explained in this area by the presence of persistent hydrolysing conditions typical of equatorial climate and reduced tectonic activity. From the Turonian to the early Campanian, i.e. a period of relative tectonic quiescence, our data suggest that climate was likely the main driver controlling the evolution of chemical weathering intensity. By contrast, from the middle Campanian to Maastrichtian, we propose that mountain uplift, although moderate, induced a marked increase in chemical weathering intensity.

Together, this new data acquired at two 2 sites that encountered different regional climatic, geologic and tectonic conditions suggest that chemical weathering markedly intensified during the late Cretaceous and likely acted as a major sink for atmospheric CO2. While the onset of weathering increase at both sites appear to postdate the initiation of global temperature decrease, we suggest here that this process could have participated to accelerating or maintaining colder climate conditions at that time.


Key Words: late Cretaceous – paleoclimate – weathering – uplift - clay mineralogy – Hf-Nd isotope

How to cite: Corentin, P., Pucéat, E., Pellenard, P., Guiraud, M., Blondet, J., Freslon, N., Bayon, G., and Adatte, T.: Hafnium-neodymium isotope evidence for enhanced weathering and tectonic-climate interactions during the Late Cretaceous, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7744,, 2022.

EGU22-8237 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

The hydrological cycle in the past 540 million years 

Yongyun Hu, Xiang Li, and Zhibo Li

Earth has undergone dramatic temperature fluctuations and the tectonic process of continental breaking up and reassembling in the past 540 million years. How these caused changes in the global hydrological cycle is an interesting question. To study the evolution of the global hydrological cycle since the Cambrian, we carried out 55 equilibrium simulations to simulate climate evolution in the past 540 million years, using CESM1.2.2. It is found that the global mean precipitation is closely correlated with the global mean surface temperature (GMST), especially oceanic precipitation has high correlation with GMST, with a coefficient of 0.92. Land precipitation also has statistically significant correlation with GMST. However, the correlation coefficient is much lower. Further analysis shows that land precipitation is also determined by continental fragmentation, mean latitudes, and total area, and that the semi-arid area is most sensitive to GMST changes.

How to cite: Hu, Y., Li, X., and Li, Z.: The hydrological cycle in the past 540 million years, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8237,, 2022.

EGU22-10287 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Long-term increase in precipitation intermittency and intensity at Paleogene mid latitudes 

Jacob Slawson and Piret Plink-Bjorklund

Unmitigated scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions produce climates like those of the Early Eocene by 2150 CE, suggesting that we are effectively reversing a more than 50-million-year cooling trend in less than two centuries. Terrestrial records of rivers and floodplains from Paleogene sedimentary basins in the US Western interior and Europe indicate an increase in flash floods and droughts at paleo-mid latitudes, indicating increased precipitation intensity and intermittency. In the Uinta Basin, Utah magnetostratigraphic analyses, absolute age dates, and biostratigraphy allow the reconstruction of changes in hydroclimate from the Early Paleocene, to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), and through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Here we observe that the largest shifts in hydroclimate are not linked to the PETM but rather occur during the warm Late Paleocene and then at the end of the EECO. This is indicated by the river sedimentary record that shows a shift from normal rivers, such as are characteristic at mid-latitudes today, to flood-prone rivers in late Paleocene. The rivers shifted back to normal at the end of the EECO. Coeval changes are observed in floodplain paleosols where the late Paleocene and early Eocene paleosols indicate sustained droughts and intermittent seasonal rains. At the PETM there is no change in the state of hydroclimate, but rather a further intensification of floods and droughts. Comparison to other terrestrial basins at mid-latitudes shows similar patterns. These results show that the most dramatic shifts in hydroclimate were not linked to the largest amplitude of atmospheric drivers at the PETM, but rather suggest a threshold-driven relationship between the atmospheric drivers and hydroclimate. This may suggest that significant changes in hydroclimate are to be expected already before 2150 CE. 

How to cite: Slawson, J. and Plink-Bjorklund, P.: Long-term increase in precipitation intermittency and intensity at Paleogene mid latitudes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10287,, 2022.

EGU22-10380 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Partitioning meridional heat transport in Early Eocene Climatic Optimum model simulations 

Fanni Dora Kelemen and Bodo Ahrens

The meridional heat transport is primarily governed by the geometry between the Earth and the Sun and it has been shown in previous studies that it is nearly invariant in different climates. Nevertheless, the processes, which contribute to the whole transport, do not stay invariable, but their changes compensate each other. Thus, the changes in the various transport processes give an insight into the climate system and its changes in different conditions, such as the high CO2 concentrations of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO).

In our work we investigate the meridional heat transport and its elements in climate model simulations from DeepMIP focusing on the EECO. The meridional heat transport is divided into atmospheric and ocean heat transport. The atmospheric heat transport is further divided into moist and dry energy transport and also into transport by the meridional overturning circulation, transient eddies and stationary eddies. Annual and seasonal changes are compared in the preindustrial control simulation, in the 1xCO2 simulation and in simulations with high CO2 concentration values (3xCO2, 4xCO2, 6xCO2). We found that in a warmer climate, where the hydrological cycle is expected to be stronger, the transport of the meridional overturning circulation at the tropics, so the circulation of the Hadley cell, is more intense. Also, at the subtropics the energy transport of monsoon systems and at the mid-latitudes the energy transport of cyclones and anticyclones is different than in the control climate.


How to cite: Kelemen, F. D. and Ahrens, B.: Partitioning meridional heat transport in Early Eocene Climatic Optimum model simulations, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10380,, 2022.

EGU22-10701 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Climate evolution during the past 250 million years simulated by the Community Earth System Model 

Xiang Li, Jiaqi Guo, Jiawenjing Lan, Qifan Lin, Shuai Yuan, Jun Yang, Yonggang Liu, and Yongyun Hu

Global climates have undergone tremendous fluctuations during the past 250 million years, primarily driven by variations in tectonic dynamics, atmospheric greenhouse gases, and solar irradiance. Paleoclimate modeling has offered a feasible approach to investigating secular climate change for such a long span of time deep in the past. Nevertheless, global mean surface temperatures (GMSTs) simulated by previous studies scarcely depict the trend of past climate change. In this study, using the Community Earth System Model version 1.2.2 (CESM1.2.2), we present an ensemble of snapshot simulations during the past 250 million years based on the reconstructed GMSTs. An energy balance analysis is carried out to explore and quantitatively describe the causes of temperature change for the past 250 million years. We find that different levels of global mean warming for the past 250 million years compared with the pre-industrial period predominantly results from relative increase in greenhouse gas emissivity (12.2 °C), with the changing paleogeography (5.6 °C) and solar constant (3.0 °C) playing secondary roles. It is highlighted that the individual effect of heat transport convergence varies inconspicuously in spite of considerable changes of paleogeography and mean climate states during this time. The simulations are potentially valuable resources for extensive studies including climate dynamics analysis in geological timescales and paleoclimate-proxy intercomparison.

How to cite: Li, X., Guo, J., Lan, J., Lin, Q., Yuan, S., Yang, J., Liu, Y., and Hu, Y.: Climate evolution during the past 250 million years simulated by the Community Earth System Model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10701,, 2022.

EGU22-10720 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Eccentricity modulation of weathering and accumulation rates: non-intuitive, empirical relationship suggests links between orbital pacing and pCO2     

Paul Olsen, Sean Kinney, Clara Chang, Morgan Schaller, Jessica Whiteside, and Dennis Kent

The high frequency oscillations between wet and dry conditions plus the warmer temperatures when the Earth comes closest to the sun, might suggest weathering and hence accumulation rates should be highest during times of maximum eccentricity and maximum precessional variability in the tropics. But time series analysis of 20 Myr of continuous cores of tropical, lacustrine Late Triassic-age strata of the Newark Rift Basin (202–222 Ma) surprisingly show that that is not the case because accumulation rates are highest during the times of lowest precessional variance at the modes of the Mars–Earth (g4-g3) orbital cycle, when eccentricity is at a minimum.

            Three different methods of analysis reveal an accumulation pattern at variance with this intuitive model. 1) Tuning the depth-domain depth rank, color, and natural gamma data series to the 405 kyr, Venus–Jupiter (g2-g5) eccentricity metronome reveals oscillations in accumulation rates of ~20m to ~100m/Myr/cycle (within a total range of 70m – 250m/Myr). Spectral analysis reveals these oscillations occur with the same period (~1.8Myr) as the Mars–Earth modulation of precession for that time, with highs in accumulation rate occurring during lows in eccentricity. A weaker signal of the Mars–Earth (s4-s3) inclination cycle is also present at about 1/2 the period of the eccentricity cycle. 2) Application of the eTimeOpt method of sedimentation rate analysis reveals the same pattern and magnitudes of sedimentation rate variations in depth rank and color. 3) Spectral analyses of gamma and XRF elemental data from intervals of low- vs high-precessional variance show that significantly lower accumulation rated occurred during extended times of high- vs low-precessional variation.

            Accumulation rate oscillations in the Newark Rift Basin should be tracking weathering rates to supply the immense volumes of sediment involved in the accumulation rate variations. Such volumes could not be somehow stored in the highlands for hundreds of thousands of years, otherwise potentially shifting weathering and accumulation rates out of phase.

            The implication of these empirical data is that because pCO2 should be drawn down under higher weathering rates, and the phase of eccentricity modulation of precession is global, pCO2 should be oscillating in phase with the Mars–Earth eccentricity cycle. On the short-term, low-pCO2 should characterize times of low-precessional variability, evidently associated with high-accumulation rates, based on these empirical data, and not vice-versa as might be intuitively modeled. In turn, the oscillations in pCO2 would be expected to cause global temperature oscillations at the g4-g3 frequency. These non-intuitive results, suggesting a hitherto unanticipated relationship between orbital pacing of climate and pCO2, can be tested and further explored by continuous XRF elemental scanning of these cores, currently underway, and by collection of more densely sampled soil carbonate and leaf stomatal pCO2 proxy data, from proposed new cores. The mechanisms driving the relationships between these reproducible empirical data are, however, not obvious, but would seem to be related to the precession-scale variability of climate, not just the magnitude of greenhouse gas concentrations or temperatures.








How to cite: Olsen, P., Kinney, S., Chang, C., Schaller, M., Whiteside, J., and Kent, D.: Eccentricity modulation of weathering and accumulation rates: non-intuitive, empirical relationship suggests links between orbital pacing and pCO2    , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10720,, 2022.

EGU22-10815 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

South Atlantic deep-sea temperatures across the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum based on clumped isotope thermometry 

Tobias Agterhuis, Martin Ziegler, Bas L. P. Koene, Lea de Vries, Anne Roozendaal, and Lucas J. Lourens

Reconstructing deep ocean temperature is important to infer deep water mass structure and hence ocean circulation patterns in the past. The late Paleocene-early Eocene experienced the warmest climates of the Cenozoic, with highly elevated CO2 levels and no ice sheets on the continents [1,2]. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O records suggest relatively stable deep ocean conditions on long time scales (>100 kyr) in this hothouse [2–4]. However, interpretations from benthic δ18O records are complicated by influences of factors other than temperature, such as the isotope composition of the seawater (δ18Osw), pH, and species-specific physiological effects [5,6]. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry (Δ47) has the major advantage that it is independent of the isotope composition of the fluid source, and is not measurably affected by other non-thermal influences [7–10]. Early Cenozoic clumped isotope reconstructions from the North Atlantic have revealed surprisingly large deep-sea temperature swings under hothouse conditions [11]. Extreme warming is recorded at the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) [11]. To explore the spatial extent of these deep-sea temperature changes, we reconstructed early Eocene Δ47-based deep-sea temperatures from the South Atlantic Ocean, a location that is considered to capture a global signal [2–4]. We find similar deep-sea temperatures as those from the North Atlantic. Cooler temperatures of ~12 °C stand out in the interval (54–52 Ma) before the peak warmth of the EECO (52–50 Ma) of ~20 °C. This result overthrows the classic view of a gradual early Eocene warming trend based on benthic δ18O records, at least for the deep Atlantic Ocean. Our findings raise new questions on the regions of deep water formation, changes in deep ocean circulation, and the driving mechanisms in the early Cenozoic hothouse.

[1] Anagnostou, E. et al. (2016). Nature533(7603), 380-384.
[2] Zachos, J. et al. (2001). Science292(5517), 686-693.
[3] Lauretano, V. et al. (2018). Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology33(10), 1050-1065.
[4] Westerhold, T. et al. (2020). Science369(6509), 1383-1387.
[5] Ravelo, A. C., & Hillaire-Marcel, C. (2007). Developments in marine geology1, 735-764.
[6] Pearson, P. N. (2012). The Paleontological Society Papers18, 1-38.
[7] Ghosh, P. et al. (2006). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta70(6), 1439-1456.
[8] Tripati, A. K. et al. (2015). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta166, 344-371.
[9] Guo, W. (2020). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta268, 230-257.
[10] Meinicke, N. et al. (2020). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta270, 160-183.
[11] Meckler, A. N. et al. (in revision).

How to cite: Agterhuis, T., Ziegler, M., Koene, B. L. P., de Vries, L., Roozendaal, A., and Lourens, L. J.: South Atlantic deep-sea temperatures across the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum based on clumped isotope thermometry, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10815,, 2022.

EGU22-11222 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

South Atlantic deep-sea temperature evolution across the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition from clumped isotope thermometry 

Elena Domínguez Valdés, Ilja Kocken, Tobias Agterhuis, Inigo Müller, Noa Bode, Dirk Kroon, Lucas Lourens, and Martin Ziegler

The reconstruction of deep-ocean temperatures is key in the study of the different climate states in the geological past. Reconstructions covering the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition shed light on the global climatic change that followed the mid-Pliocene warm period and culminated in full glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere.

Global δ18O records measured on seafloor dwelling foraminifera constitute the backbone of our understanding of the climatic trends and transitions of the last 65 million years [1,2]. These records suggest that the glacial intensification over the last 2.8 Ma experienced the onset of Quaternary-style ice age cycles and the progression towards a more deterministic climate system increasingly sensitive to orbital forcings. Deep-sea temperature variability across this time is thought to have stayed in a 4ºC range with near-freezing temperatures occurring at every glacial maximum, especially after the Mid-Pleistocene transition [2,3]. However, temperature signals based on carbonate δ18O data are built upon uncertain assumptions of non-thermal factors such as those regarding the isotopic composition of the ancient seawater.

Carbonate clumped thermometry (𝛥47) is based on thermodynamic principles that determine the ordering of isotopes within the carbonate crystal lattice [4]. It is independent of the fluid composition. 𝛥47 thermometry has recently been used to anchor Mg/Ca records of the Miocene while revealing a comparatively warm deep ocean [5].

Here we present 𝛥47-based deep-sea temperature constraints across the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition obtained from benthic foraminifera of ODP Site 1264 in the South Atlantic Ocean. In combination with benthic δ18O analyses, we furthermore interpret our measurements into global ice volume and ocean circulation changes in the Atlantic Basin across the major onset of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation.

[1] Zachos, J., et al. (2001), Science 292, 686-693.

[2] Westerhold, T., et al. (2020), Science, 369, 1383–1387,

[3] Elderfield, H., et al. (2012) Science, 337(6095), 704-709.

[4] Eiler, J.M. (2007), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 262, 309-327.

[5] Modestou, S. E., et al. (2020) Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 35, e2020PA003927.

How to cite: Domínguez Valdés, E., Kocken, I., Agterhuis, T., Müller, I., Bode, N., Kroon, D., Lourens, L., and Ziegler, M.: South Atlantic deep-sea temperature evolution across the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition from clumped isotope thermometry, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11222,, 2022.

EGU22-11663 | Presentations | CL1.1.1

Modeling the Impact of Paleogeography on Cretaceous Ocean Deoxygenation 

Yannick Donnadieu, Nina Papadomanolaki, Marie Laugie, Anta Sarr, and Jean-Baptiste Ladant

Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) were geologically short-lived events of widespread ocean deoxygenation and marine organic carbon burial and occurred mostly during the Cretaceous period. The development of OAEs is largely attributed to the impact of massive volcanism on climate and marine biogeochemistry; however, the lack of similar events during other carbon-cycle perturbations suggests additional mechanisms. We use the IPSL-CM5A2 Earth System Model to assess the role of changing paleogeography in priming the Cretaceous Ocean for large-scale decrease in intermediate and deep oxygen concentrations. We focus on three time-slices that present differences in potential gateway (e.g. the Central American Seaway) depth and basin configuration (e.g. the North Atlantic): the Aptian age (~120 Ma), the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (~94 Ma) and the Maastrichtian age (~70 Ma). This set of simulations illustrates the impact of paleogeography on global circulation and its consequences for intermediate and deep water oxygenation. We also show results for two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (2x and 4x pre-industrial) to study the additional influence of differing climatic states on oxygenation and primary productivity, and their importance relative to ocean dynamics.

How to cite: Donnadieu, Y., Papadomanolaki, N., Laugie, M., Sarr, A., and Ladant, J.-B.: Modeling the Impact of Paleogeography on Cretaceous Ocean Deoxygenation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11663,, 2022.

EGU22-1312 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

The significance of Atlantic Water routing in the Nordic Seas during the present interglacial 

Maciej M. Telesiński, Magdalena Łącka, Agnieszka Kujawa, and Marek Zajączkowski

The Nordic Seas are a key region for global ocean circulation, crucial in water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the Arctic oceans, and deepwater formation. The advection of Atlantic Water (AW) to the Nordic Seas is decisive for the oceanography and climate of the region and beyond. Here, we present a set of sedimentary records, including two new cores from the western Nordic Seas to reconstruct the history of AW routing in the Nordic Seas over the Holocene. Our results show that the early Holocene (11.7 - 8 ka BP) thermal maximum, caused by an “overshoot” of overturning circulation and high insolation, was limited to the eastern Nordic Seas, while the western part remained cold due to the meltwater blocking the spreading of AW. After 8 ka BP, the retreat of the freshwater lid allowed AW to reach the central Greenland Sea, where deep convection developed. The weakening of the overturning circulation during the 8.2 ka BP event could have played an important role in this circulation shift. After 5 ka BP, the increase in sea-ice export from the Arctic strengthened deep convection, which intensified the westward AW flow. A disruption of convectional activity around 2.7 ka BP, triggered by a minimum in solar activity, caused cooling and expansion of sea ice in the Nordic Seas and might have contributed to a global climatic deterioration. The overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas did not recover to its previous state until the present. We demonstrate that the rate of AW advection into the Nordic Seas alone is not enough to understand the oceanographic evolution of this area and its influence on regional or even global ocean and climate changes. The shifts in AW routing within the Nordic Seas and the rate of deep convection are also important.

How to cite: Telesiński, M. M., Łącka, M., Kujawa, A., and Zajączkowski, M.: The significance of Atlantic Water routing in the Nordic Seas during the present interglacial, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1312,, 2022.

EGU22-2443 | Presentations | CL1.1.3 | Highlight

All interglacials are different, but some are more different than others 

Chronis Tzedakis, David Hodell, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, and Eric Wolff

Examination of the palaeoclimate record of the last 800 kyr has revealed a large diversity among interglacials in terms of their duration, structure and intensity.  Interglacials may be classified as either short (mean duration 13 kyr) or long (mean duration 28 kyr).  The phasing of precession and obliquity appears to influence the persistence of interglacial conditions over one or two insolation peaks: the longest interglacials are characterized by the obliquity peak lagging the first precession minimum by 10±2 kyr and leading the second precession minimum by a similar amount; thus the first boreal summer insolation minimum occurs at the time of maximum obliquity, which overrides the increase in precession and prevents glacial inception associated with a decline in summer insolation.  The phasing of precession and obliquity also determines the structure of an interglacial, leading to two main categories: (1) shorter interglacials characterized by rapid deglaciation and an early temperature optimum, usually followed by a decline; and (2) longer interglacials characterized by protracted deglaciation and the persistence of interglacial values over two insolation peaks, with the interglacial peak occurring in the second insolation maximum.  With respect to intensity, a broad feature is that interglacials before the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE; 430 ka) appear weaker (cooler, higher δ18Obenthic, atmospheric CO2 lower than pre-industrial concentrations).  The strongest interglacials occurred after the MBE, although MIS7e and MIS7c-a are closer in intensity to pre-MBE interglacials.  Of particular interest is MIS 11c, one of the most unusual Quaternary interglacials.  Its features include: (i) a high sea-level highstand attained under modest insolation forcing; (ii) a long duration extending over two insolation peaks; (iii) persistence of relatively stable atmospheric CO2 concentrations, remaining in the range 270-282 ppm for a 24 kyr period; and (iv) a decoupling between high CO2 and high sea level in the early part of the interglacial that is unique in the last 800 kyr.  Although some of these features are also encountered in other interglacials, their combination with strong interglacial intensity is unique to MIS 11c and appears to be a function of the high CO2concentrations from the beginning of the interglacial.

How to cite: Tzedakis, C., Hodell, D., Nehrbass-Ahles, C., and Wolff, E.: All interglacials are different, but some are more different than others, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2443,, 2022.

Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, between about 130 and 70 ka BP, is a relatively long warm period characterized by climate oscillations consisting of three interstadials and two stadials. In this study, two sets of snapshot simulations by a step of 2 ka covering the whole MIS-5 period are performed with the model HadCM3 to investigate the relative impacts of insolation, CO2 and Northern Hemisphere ice sheets on the internal variations within MIS-5 and spatial variations of the East Asian climate, including the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity. The first set of experiments are forced by varying insolation and GHGs (OrbGHG) and the second ones are forced by varying insolation, GHGs and ice sheets (OrbGHGIce). Results show that a similar trend with precession can be found in the simulated summer precipitation, temperature and EASM index in both OrbGHG and OrbGHGIce, indicating the dominant role of precession on the EASM. Within the range of CO2 variability during MIS-5, the change of CO2 causes similar degree of warming effect, but much lower degree of humidifying effect compared to insolation. Insolation and CO2 change the precipitation through different dynamic and thermodynamic processes. Our results also show that the influence of ice sheets on temperature and precipitation is less important than the effect of insolation and it varies from regions and in time. The effect of ice sheets depends on background insolation and also the location, height and area of ice sheets. The simulated spatial-temporal variations of the EASM climate are compared with proxy records and the mechanisms involved are investigated. 

How to cite: Lyu, A. and Yin, Q.: The spatial-temporal patterns of East Asian climate in response to insolation, CO2 and ice sheets during MIS-5, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2635,, 2022.

EGU22-3033 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Diverse models, diverse interglacial results? Sea ice physics versus model forcing 

Louise Sime, Rachel Diamond, David Schroeder, Maria Vittoria Guarino, and Rahul Sivankutty

Different IPCC-CMIP6 climate models give diverse results when run under common interglacial forcing. The mid-Holocene and the Last Interglacial are the two time periods from which we have the most results. The diversity is particularly true for the Arctic, where sea ice physics plays a key role. Whilst scientists have known for more than twenty years that summer temperatures in the Arctic during the Last Interglacial – the warm period around 127,000-128,000 years ago - were around 4°C above those of today (from lake, peat, and marine core data), the cause of this warmth puzzled scientists until 2020. Until 2020, it was thought this Last Interglacial warmth may have been driven by Arctic vegetation changes.  We present an analysis of a variety of CMIP6 model simulations run during the Last Interglacial.  Only one model simulates a fully sea ice-free Arctic during the summer –it includes an advanced representation of melt ponds in the sea ice model. Melt ponds are shallow pools of water which form on the surface of Arctic sea ice. We find that the inclusion of melt ponds within models is likely crucial for understanding Last Interglacial sea ice loss and Arctic warmth, and touch on the relationship between Arctic sea ice changes in warm climate and on high equilibrium sensitivity CMIP6 models. Alongside the impact of different physics in the models, we also consider forcing aspects including the impact of the meltwater from deglaciation and top-of-the-atmosphere radiation (orbital).

How to cite: Sime, L., Diamond, R., Schroeder, D., Guarino, M. V., and Sivankutty, R.: Diverse models, diverse interglacial results? Sea ice physics versus model forcing, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3033,, 2022.

EGU22-3087 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Comparison of Arctic and Southern Ocean sea ice between the last nine interglacials and the future 

Zhipeng Wu, Qiuzhen Yin, Zhengtang Guo, and André Berger

Understanding the sea ice variability and the mechanisms involved during warm periods of the Earth is essential for a better understanding of the sea ice changes at the present and in the future. Based on simulations with the model LOVECLIM, this study investigates the sea ice variations during the last nine interglacials and focuses on the inter-comparison between interglacials as well as their differences from the present and future. Our results show that, for the double CO2 experiment and the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP)1-2.6, SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenario experiments, the global, Arctic and Southern Ocean sea ice areas simulated by LOVECLIM all fall in the range of the multi-model results from CMIP 6. In addition, the results show that the annual mean Arctic sea ice variation is primarily controlled by local summer insolation, while the annual mean Southern Ocean sea ice variation is more influenced by the CO2 concentration but the effect of local summer insolation can’t be ignored. The lowest Arctic sea ice area results from the highest summer insolation at MIS-15, and the lowest Southern Ocean sea ice area at MIS-9 is explained by the highest CO2 concentration and moderate local summer insolation. As compared to the present, the last nine interglacials all have much less sea ice in the Arctic annually and seasonally due to high summer insolation. They also have much less Arctic sea ice in summer than the double CO2 experiment, which makes to some degree the interglacials possible analogues for the future in terms of the changes of sea ice. However, compared to the double CO2 experiment, the interglacials all have much more sea ice in the Southern Ocean due to their much lower CO2 concentration, which suggests the inappropriateness of considering the interglacials as analogues for the future in the Southern Ocean. Our results suggest that in the search for potential analogues of the present and future climate, the seasonal and regional climate variations should be considered.

Reference: Zhipeng Wu, Qiuzhen Yin, Zhengtang Guo, André Berger, 2022. Comparison of Arctic and Southern Ocean sea ice between the last nine interglacials and the future. Climate Dynamics, accepted.

How to cite: Wu, Z., Yin, Q., Guo, Z., and Berger, A.: Comparison of Arctic and Southern Ocean sea ice between the last nine interglacials and the future, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3087,, 2022.

EGU22-3148 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

The Early-Middle Pleistocene interglacials in the Iberian margin 

Maria Fernanda Sanchez Goñi, Dulce Oliveira, César Morales-Molino, Stéphanie Desprat, Josue M. Polanco-Martinez, David Hodell, Filipa Naughton, and Teresa Rodrigues

Interglacials older than 450,000 years ago (ka) are still poorly documented at regional and global scale limiting our knowledge of the wide range of their potential variability and the understanding of the causes of such diversity. Here we present δ18O benthic foraminifera measurements along with sea surface temperature reconstructions and pollen data from IODP site U1385, collected during Expedition 339 « Mediterranean Outflow » on the southwestern Iberian margin, for the Early-Middle Pleistocene interglacials MIS 19, 17, 15 and 13 (~800 to 400 ka). The recorded vegetation and climate changes on land have been directly compared with changes in the eastern North Atlantic subtropical gyre and the global ice volume. This comparison reveals a different structure in the evolution of the Mediterranean forest during these interglacials. The highest forest development occurred during MIS 19e and 15e but in the middle part of MIS 13 (MIS 13c). In contrast with MIS 19, 15 and 13 marked by three more or less similar Mediterranean forest expansions, MIS 17 was characterised by one strong expansion in its middle part (MIS 17c), the strongest of the last 800,000 years, occurring just before the end of the Middle Pleistocene Transition, i.e. the establishment of the strong 100-kyr glacial cycles at ~700 ka.  The duration of the first forested phase was also variable depending on the interglacial with a length of ~12,000 years during MIS 19e and 15e, ~9,000 years for MIS 13c and as long as 16,000 years for MIS 17c. Interestingly, two Mediterranean forest expansions are recorded during two phases of ice growth, MIS 19b and 15b, indicating once more the decoupling between the evolution of global ice volume and the southern European environments. The comparison of the U1385 pollen record, located below 40°N, with sequences above 40°N, for example the Lake Orhid pollen record, shows that the structure and magnitude of the interglacials are different below and above this latitude. At Montalbano Jonico, southern Italy at 40°N, the forest expansion is also very strong (80%) during MIS 17 contrasting with the limited development in Lake Orhid. At this site, MIS 19 is further marked by a strong forest development contrasting with the limited expansion of the Mediterranean forest in SW Iberia.

How to cite: Sanchez Goñi, M. F., Oliveira, D., Morales-Molino, C., Desprat, S., Polanco-Martinez, J. M., Hodell, D., Naughton, F., and Rodrigues, T.: The Early-Middle Pleistocene interglacials in the Iberian margin, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3148,, 2022.

Numerous studies have been made on paleoclimate and paleovegetation reconstructions and simulations of the past interglacials. However, systematical analysis of the global patterns of the correlation between vegetation pattern and astronomical forcing as well as CO2 between different interglacials is rare. Given the distinct differences in orbital configurations and climate/vegetation variations between MIS-11 and MIS-13, we performed two sets of transient simulations using LOVECLIM 1.3, one driven by insolation change only, and another one by changes in both insolation and CO2. These simulations allow us to investigate the relative effect of astronomical forcing and CO2 on global and regional vegetation changes during these two interglacials. Our results show that the effects of precession and obliquity on vegetation depend strongly on regions, and the simulated results are in good agreement with vegetation reconstructions at key regions. The vegetation response differs widely between MIS-11and MIS-13, which is mainly caused by the difference in their astronomical configurations, and the difference in CO2 concentration between these two interglacials plays a minor role. In addition to the effect of precession and obliquity, our simulations are also able to capture the half precession signal (~ 10 ka) in the climate and vegetation changes in the tropical regions in response to the tropical insolation.

How to cite: Su, Q., Lyu, A., Wu, Z., and Yin, Q.: Diverse manifestations of the impact of astronomical forcing and CO2 on climate and vegetation changes during MIS-11 and MIS-13, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4354,, 2022.

EGU22-6616 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

A southern Portuguese margin perspective of Marine Isotope Stage 47 – an interglacial in the 41 kyr world 

Antje H. L. Voelker, Teresa Rodrigues, Samanta Trotta, Maria Marino, and Henning Kuhnert

In order to understand interglacial climate variability we also need to study interglacial periods prior to the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, i.e. within the 41 kyr world. Early Pleistocene interglacial periods, in particular from the interval directly preceding the onset of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, provide ideal study cases since interglacial atmospheric carbon dioxide levels during that period appear to have been similar to or only slightly higher than during the warmest interglacials of the last 800 ka. Here we present the first results from a high-resolution, multi-proxy study of interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 47 (1424-1452 ka) at IODP Site U1387 (36°48´N 7°43´W), drilled into the Faro Drift on the southern Portuguese margin at 559 m water depth. Nowadays, surface waters near Site U1387 originate from the subtropical gyre, whereas the intermediate-depth Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is encountered at the seafloor. For our study, we use the stable isotope data of planktonic foraminifera species G. bulloides and G. ruber white and benthic foraminifera species P. ariminensis and C. pachyderma, biomarker-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST), the weight percentage of the sand fraction, and microfossil evidence.

Following a rapid transition, interglacial conditions were quickly established in the surface waters with SST at levels near or above 24°C, sometimes even exceeding 25°C, throughout much of MIS 47. Those are the warmest SST so far observed for the Pleistocene at that location, being more than three degrees warmer than modern SST. The common occurrence of tropical species in the planktonic foraminifera fauna hints to a persistent contribution of tropical waters to the surface waters and thus probably the northward expansion and/or intensification of the North Atlantic's subtropical gyre. The MOW, on the other hand, experienced an extended period of poor ventilation, most likely associated with low oxygen levels, as indicated by the extremely low benthic carbon isotope values and the occurrence of gypsum crystals in the sediments that formed when the pyrite in the sediments was oxidized after the cores were opened. Following evidence from younger interglacials, this MOW signal should be linked to reduced ventilation and overturning in the Mediterranean Sea as consequence of increased freshwater input caused by an intensified North African monsoon. The benthic δ18O record of MIS 47 indicates a three phased interglacial period with a minimum separating two maxima. On a subtle level, this phasing might also exist in the surface water records. This and potential causes need to be explored further in the future, when all high-resolution data is available. Overall, the Site U1387 records confirm MIS 47 as a "super"-interglacial, much more so than MIS 31, on the southern Portuguese margin. Insights from this warm interglacial and associated oceanographic conditions and changes in the planktonic and benthic microfossil floras and faunas might provide hints on how future warming in those waters could impact the regional ecosystems.

How to cite: Voelker, A. H. L., Rodrigues, T., Trotta, S., Marino, M., and Kuhnert, H.: A southern Portuguese margin perspective of Marine Isotope Stage 47 – an interglacial in the 41 kyr world, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6616,, 2022.

EGU22-8018 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Increased zonal δ13C gradient in the deep South Atlantic after the Mid-Brunhes Transition 

João Ballalai, Thiago Santos, Rodrigo Nascimento, Igor Venancio, Patrícia Piacsek, Bruna Dias, André Belem, Karen Costa, Natalia Vázquez Riveiros, and Ana Luiza Albuquerque

The climate system experienced several periodic oscillations over the last ca. 800 ka known as glacial-interglacial (G-IG) cycles. Disruptions of the global carbon cycle were evident on this time scale, promoting fluctuations in the atmospheric CO2 concentration leading to global climate variability. In the more recent interglacials, both Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are significantly higher than in the previous “lukewarm interglacials” (ca. 800 – 430 ka) before the Mid-Brunhes Transition (MBT). Changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and deepwater formation rate around Antarctica have been invoked to explain a 30 ppm increase in the atmospheric CO2 ­during post-MBT interglacial periods. Deepwater variability is tightly coupled to the ventilation of CO2 in the Southern Ocean by atmospheric and oceanic connections, contributing to carbon storage in the deep ocean and the atmospheric CO2. Here, we present a new 770 ka benthic foraminifera δ13C record from sediment core GL-854 retrieved from the western South Atlantic (WSA) at 2200 m water depth. We compare our record with published δ13C data from the eastern margin to investigate the zonal gradient variability of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the deep South Atlantic basin. WSA δ13C variability and absolute values strongly mimic the North Atlantic mid-depth record at the NADW formation region. This similarity is interpreted as NADW preferentially carrying a modified signal through the deep western boundary current towards the WSA (rather than towards the eastern margin) after the MBT. The δ13C gradient based on the difference between benthic foraminifera C. wuellerstorfi from both margins (Δδ13Cw-e) gradually increases after a transitional period between ca. 400 ka to 300 ka towards the Holocene. We suggest that the mechanism behind this long-term increasing trend on the Δδ13Cw-e record post-MBT is the result of enhanced production of North Component Water due to Agulhas Leakage intensification driven by reduced sea-ice extent after the MBT. Furthermore, reduced sea-ice extent decreases the Antarctic Bottom Water density and formation in the Southern Ocean, contributing to the deepening of the AMOC during post-MBT interglacial periods. Our interpretation proposes a framework connecting sea-ice and ocean-atmosphere dynamics to deepwater geometry within the South Atlantic basin, which ultimately contributed to the climate change observed across the MBT.

How to cite: Ballalai, J., Santos, T., Nascimento, R., Venancio, I., Piacsek, P., Dias, B., Belem, A., Costa, K., Vázquez Riveiros, N., and Albuquerque, A. L.: Increased zonal δ13C gradient in the deep South Atlantic after the Mid-Brunhes Transition, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8018,, 2022.

EGU22-10148 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Higher state of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the Last Interglacial (130-115 ka BP): evidence from temperature and hydrology in the Dead Sea 

Emmanuel Guillerm, Véronique Gardien, Niels Brall, Daniel Ariztegui, Markus Schwab, Ina Neugebauer, Nicolas Waldmann, Adeline Lach, and Frédéric Caupin

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is currently the main mode of winter atmospheric variability in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. It represents the fluctuation of the meridional sea-level pressure gradient in the North Atlantic, with high and low phases defined by high and low pressure gradients, respectively. High (or low) NAO phases are associated with wet and warm (or dry and cold) weather conditions in Northern Europe. In mid latitude regions such as the Mediterranean, this relationship is inverse, producing dry and cold (or wet and warm) conditions. Whether or not the average state of the NAO may have shifted in the past is much debated, with major implications for the understanding of past regional climate. Using a climate model, Felis et al. (2004) showed that the average state of the NAO during the Last Interglacial (130-115 ka BP) was significantly higher than during the pre-industrial period, with a high plateau from ~126 to 118 ka BP. However, proxy-based reconstructions of temperature and rainfall are needed to support this. Here, we use a new method, Brillouin spectroscopy on halite fluid inclusions, to reconstruct the evolution of temperature and hydrology in the Dead Sea, southern Levant, throughout the Last Interglacial. We find lower than modern Dead Sea temperatures and a lowering freshwater influx throughout the last interglacial. Using climate data from the recent decades, we demonstrate that the temperature of the Dead Sea hypolimnion mainly depends on winter air temperature, which is itself anti-correlated with the NAO. We also demonstrate that, during years of very high NAO, rainfall is drastically reduced in the lake catchment. In light of our analysis of modern climate data, the reconstructed cold and dry conditions in the Dead Sea area is consistent with the modelled higher NAO conditions.

How to cite: Guillerm, E., Gardien, V., Brall, N., Ariztegui, D., Schwab, M., Neugebauer, I., Waldmann, N., Lach, A., and Caupin, F.: Higher state of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the Last Interglacial (130-115 ka BP): evidence from temperature and hydrology in the Dead Sea, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10148,, 2022.

EGU22-12679 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Summer Arctic temperatures in PMIP4 Last Interglacial simulations and their link to Arctic sea ice 

Rahul Sivankutty, Louise Sime, Irene Malmierca Vallet, and Agatha de Boer

Investigating climate models responses and feedbacks under warmer climates is useful in building confidence in future climate projections. Here we focus on the summer sea ice in the Arctic during the Last Interglacial period (LIG), when the Arctic was warmer than the Pre-Industrial period (PI) by around 4.5 ± 1.7 K. Given that it is difficult to ascertain the state of Arctic sea ice from marine core proxies of sea ice state, we focus instead on summer surface air temperature (SSAT) in CMIP6-PMIP4 simulations and compare these with equivalent proxy data. All 12 models we have analysed show both warmer SSAT and a reduction in summer sea ice in the LIG compared to the PI, with an average warming of +3.6K and an average 52% decrease in minimum sea ice area.


We find that model-observation differences in LIG SSAT are linearly related to the percentage loss of summer Arctic sea ice. However this general finding does not fit the CNRM model result, which is an outlier. This simulation captures the observed pattern of SSAT, without being close to ice-free. However peculiarities in the CNRM set-up (forcing and sea ice model tuning) means it is unclear what can be drawn from this one result. CNRM aside, models tend to yield more accurate LIG SSAT changes when they are closer to an ice-free state in summer. The models which feature sea ice losses larger than the multi-model-mean sea ice loss, tend to have the smallest model-observation SSAT errors. The results of this study provides caveated support to the argument that Arctic could have been ice-free during LIG summers. That said, a careful examination of the SSAT dataset would also be value to the LIG community, given that these results are dependent on the LIG SSAT observational dataset.


How to cite: Sivankutty, R., Sime, L., Malmierca Vallet, I., and de Boer, A.: Summer Arctic temperatures in PMIP4 Last Interglacial simulations and their link to Arctic sea ice, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12679,, 2022.

EGU22-12943 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Arctic Amplification through Inter-seasonal Feedback Effect in Past Interglacials 

Lynn Hirose, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Masakazu Yoshimori, Wing-Le Chan, Ryouta O'ishi, and Takashi Obase

Past interglacials allow investigating the climatic processes and associated feedbacks during warm periods, which are characterized by different combinations of climatic forcing such as solar radiation, GHGs, and ice sheets. Arctic warming amplification, a common phenomenon between past interglacials and present warming, has seasonality in its feedback mechanism, and detailed study of these internal feedbacks is still lacking despite its global impact. In this study, the simulation experiments under conditions close to the past interglacial periods (MIS1; Holocene, MIS5e; Last Interglacial, and MIS11) are conducted using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model MIROC (4m) AOVGCM, particularly focusing on the role of ice sheets and Arctic sea ice. Climate responses to inputs and conditions are compared to examine the seasonal effects of atmosphere-ocean-ice feedbacks on Northern hemisphere high-latitudes temperature. Ice sheet distribution is set as a boundary condition in addition to the orbital elements, land cover, and GHGs to account the effect of remaining ice sheets at the timing of peak insolation. Feedback Analysis is also conducted to quantify the contribution of each feedback element to the surface temperature change. It is demonstrated that an inter-seasonal effect of air-sea-ice-vegetation feedbacks contributes to Arctic warming amplification, where heat gained in summer is used for sea ice melting and ocean absorption, and is released in autumn and winter, resulting in annual warming. This process is amplified when considering vegetation feedbacks and seen commonly in MIS1, 5e, and 11. In periods when ice sheets remain, Arctic sea ice keeps a high degree of concentration in summer, and annual mean temperatures at Northern high latitudes are lower than would be expected from insolation intensity. These results imply that the presence of Northern hemisphere ice sheet has a significant effect on Arctic climate response to insolation intensity by suppressing feedbacks that contribute to Arctic amplification through the reduced melt of summer sea ice.

How to cite: Hirose, L., Abe-Ouchi, A., Yoshimori, M., Chan, W.-L., O'ishi, R., and Obase, T.: Arctic Amplification through Inter-seasonal Feedback Effect in Past Interglacials, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12943,, 2022.

EGU22-13117 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Impacts of insolation and CO2 on the spatial differences of the MIS-9 and MIS-11 climate between monsoonal China and central Asia 

Hao Lu, Qiuzhen Yin, Zhipeng Wu, Feng Shi, Qinzhen Hao, Dunsheng Xia, and Zhengtang Guo

Marine oxygen isotope records and ice cores in Antarctica suggest that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9, an interglacial occurring about 300 ka ago, is a strong interglacial and has the highest greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations during the past 800 ka. Model results also show that MIS-9 is the warmest interglacial among the last nine ones as a result of both its high CO2 concentration and its high summer insolation in the northern Hemisphere (NH). However, the China loess records show that the paleosol S3 that corresponds to MIS-9 is not necessarily strong as compared to some other paleosol units such as the S4 soil that was formed during MIS-11, suggesting relatively drier climate condition during MIS-9. By contrast, in Tajikistan of southern central Asia, the paleosol S3 is the most developed soil over the past 800 ka, indicating a relatively warm and humid climate conditions. The difference in the paleosol formation and the MIS-9 climate between monsoonal China and central Asia is intriguing. In this study, we combine loess records from monsoonal China and central Asia as well as climate simulation results to understand the spatial difference of the MIS-9 climate in particular in comparison with the climate of MIS-11. The individual and combined contributions of insolation and greenhouse gases are quantified through simulations with the LOVECLIM model and using the factor separation technique. Our results show that the simulated effective moisture conditions between northern China and southern central Asia are consistent with the loess records and field observation. Insolation leads to much more annual mean precipitation than GHG during MIS-9 in southern central Asia, explaining a much wetter MIS-9 there. By contrast, both insolation and GHG lead to more annual mean precipitation and evaporation during MIS-9 in northern China, leading to only a slight difference in the effective moisture between MIS-9 and MIS-11. In addition, compared to MIS-11, the larger obliquity and higher GHG concentration during MIS-9 lead to an anomalous atmospheric circulation pattern similar to negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring precipitation increase in southern central Asia and therefore explain strong soil development in Tajikistan.

How to cite: Lu, H., Yin, Q., Wu, Z., Shi, F., Hao, Q., Xia, D., and Guo, Z.: Impacts of insolation and CO2 on the spatial differences of the MIS-9 and MIS-11 climate between monsoonal China and central Asia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13117,, 2022.

EGU22-13443 | Presentations | CL1.1.3

Mid-Brunhes Transition caused by Antarctic ice sheet melting during MIS11c 

Xu Zhang, Stephen Barker, Martin Werner, Yuchen Sun, and Chronis Tzedakis

Interglacial intensity in past 800 kyr is characterized by a transition, about 430 kyr ago, between the older ones, which were relatively cool and low sea level, and the more recent ones, which were relatively warm and high sea level. This transition, as identified in Antarctic ice core and benthic calcite d18Oc records, corresponds to the so-called mid-Brunhes Transition (MBT). However, its origin and underlying dynamics remain elusive. Here we show, based on a start-of-art, stable water isotope enabled climate model, that additional ice volume to the present-day levels should be considered in order to reproduce the systematic enrichment in interglacial d18Oc before the MBT. This extra ice of ~18 e.s.l.m. likely exists in the Antarctic, which in turn weakens vertical mixing in Southern Ocean, potentially accounting for the low interglacial atmospheric CO2 levels prior to the MBT. Our results further indicate that during MIS11c the unique climate background leads to extra Antarctic ice sheet melting, eventually giving rise to a systematic change in interglacial climate and hence accounting for the MBT.

How to cite: Zhang, X., Barker, S., Werner, M., Sun, Y., and Tzedakis, C.: Mid-Brunhes Transition caused by Antarctic ice sheet melting during MIS11c, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13443,, 2022.

The mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system was introduced [1] to explain the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Quaternary and is still regarded as a dynamical systems paradigm for those climate cycles. In the SR the stochastic forcing must satisfy a rather stringent condition; besides, glacial inceptions occur abruptly, as well as the glacial terminations. However, these conditions do not seem to be verified in the real climate system. Here it is shown that the alternative dynamical paradigm -that may be termed deterministic excitation (DE)- in which relaxation oscillations (ROs) are excited by the astronomical forcing in a purely deterministic framework, overcomes those limitations and may therefore provide a more plausible theoretical basis for the explanation of the glacial-interglacial variability.

In an excitable dynamical system a RO connects a basic state to an unstable excited state, which is then followed by a spontaneous, slow return to the original state. Such transition is self-sustained in a given parameter range of the autonomous system, otherwise it can be excited by an external deterministic time-dependent forcing (DE) or by noise (coherence resonance). Examples of DE in ocean dynamics are presented for the Kuroshio Extension in the North Pacific and for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean.

A 4-dimensional nonlinear excitable spectral model of the wind-driven ocean circulation [2] is then used to briefly illustrate the main aspects of excitable climate dynamics, focusing on the occurrence of coherence resonance [3], on the DE of ROs under the action of an aperiodic forcing [4] and on the tipping points due to parameter drift [5]. Finally, a classical energy balance model is extended to obtain a minimal excitable model of the late Pleistocene ice ages [Pierini, in preparation]. The timing of the interglacials, determined by the DE caused by the variations of the Earth’s orbital eccentricity and axial tilt and precession, is found to be in significant agreement with proxy data. (Support from the IPSODES-P.N.R.A. project is acknowledged)

[1] Benzi R., Parisi G., Sutera A., Vulpiani A., 1982. Tellus 34, 10-16.

[2] Pierini S., 2011. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 1585-1604.

[3] Pierini S., 2012. Phys. Rev. E 85, 027101.

[4] Pierini S., Ghil M., Chekroun M.D., 2016. J. Climate 29, 4185-4202.

[5] Pierini S., Ghil M., 2021. Sci. Rep. 11, 11126.

How to cite: Pierini, S.: On the functioning of the glacial-interglacial variability: deterministic excitation vs. stochastic resonance, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1039,, 2022.

EGU22-1422 | Presentations | CL1.1.4 | Highlight | Milutin Milankovic Medal Lecture

Milankovitch Theory and Global Monsoon 

Hai Cheng

  The Milankovitch Theory of orbital climate change postulates that changes in the caloric summer half-year insolation (or Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI) at ~65°N latitude) drive changes in the ice-sheets extent (i.e., global ice-volume) at Earth’s orbital periods (i.e., the sensu-stricto theory). These insolation-driven changes in turn, incite ancillary changes in other parts of the global climate systems via various forcing and feedback mechanisms (the sensu-lato hypothesis). In this theoretical framework the high-latitude glaciation processes took the center stage while the low-latitude global monsoon was essentially excluded. In the last two decades, large numbers of cave d18O records with precise radiometric chronologies have propelled speleothems to the forefront of paleoclimatology. Of particular interest are the speleothem records from North America that reveal a persistent orbital pacing of the North American climate at the precession band, which is nearly in phase with changes in the global ice-volume and atmospheric CO2 but lags June insolation at 65°N by ~5000 years, in accordance with the sensu-stricto Milankovitch theory. Contrastingly, the low-latitude tropical speleothem records manifest an orbital-scale pattern of global monsoon, which is dominated by precession cycles with a nearly anti-phased relation between the two hemispheres. Importantly, the monsoon variations track summer (July/January) insolation without significant lags at the precession band. We thus suggest that precession-induced changes in summer insolation produce distinct climate variability in the ice-sheet proximal and tropical regions predominantly via the (delayed) ice-volume/CO2 forcing/feedbacks and nearly-in-phase monsoon/CH4 responses/feedbacks.

  As for global-scale millennial events that were superimposed on orbital-scale climate variations, the essence of these events—i.e., conventional ice age terminations and other smaller events (the so-called ‘low-amplitude versions of terminations’), is virtually similar. The time-series of millennial-scale variations after removing orbital insolation signals from the speleothem monsoon record and long-term trend in the Antarctic ice core temperature (δD) record characterize the millennial climate variances of both ice age termination and low-amplitude versions of termination events. Remarkably, the millennial-scale variations show significant obliquity and precession cycles that are in-phase with North Hemisphere June insolation, implying a critical role of changes in orbital insolation in triggering the ice age terminations. These observations, in turn, provide new insights into the classic ‘100 ka problem’.

  Indeed, a more comprehensive picture of orbital theory of climate is steadily emerging with the growth of new geological proxy data, particularly the low-latitude speleothem data from the vast global monsoon regime, providing critical complements to marine and ice-core data.

How to cite: Cheng, H.: Milankovitch Theory and Global Monsoon, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1422,, 2022.

EGU22-1435 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Towards an astrochronological tuned age model for the upper Pliocene–lower Pleistocene Western Foreland Basin of Taiwan 

Romain Vaucher, Christian Zeeden, Amy Hsieh, Stefanie Kaboth-Bahr, Andrew T. Lin, Chorng-Shern Horng, and Shahin E. Dashtgard

The stratigraphic records of shallow-marine environments are not commonly regarded as excellent climate archives because of their presumed temporal incompleteness. However, a recent study of lower Pleistocene strata in the Western Foreland Basin, Taiwan, reveals high-resolution records of past climate oscillations preserved within shallow-marine strata. Deriving such narratives is made possible because of the high accommodation and sedimentation rates in the basin, which enhanced the completeness of the stratigraphic record.

Here, we astrochronologically tune the Chinshui Shale and the lower part of the Cholan Formation of the Western Foreland Basin from approximately 3.5 to 2 Ma. These strata are calibrated to global deep-sea stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) records with established time scales detailing global climate change during the studied time period. The Chinshui Shale is mudstone-dominated and was deposited mostly in offshore settings, while the Cholan Formation comprises mainly heterolithic strata deposited in shallower settings (i.e., offshore transition, nearshore) of the paleo-Taiwan Strait. The data used herein are two borehole gamma-ray profiles through the Chinshui Shale and the Cholan Formation that have a proximal-distal relation to Taiwan. High gamma-ray values reflect clay-rich intervals and correlate to lower values of δ18O in the global reference records. Low gamma-ray values point to sand-rich packages and correlate with higher values of δ18O.

Preliminary results show that the alternating clay-rich to sand-rich deposits during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene are orbitally paced. The results allow us to i) tune the upper Pliocene–lower Pleistocene Chinshui Shale and lower part of the Cholan Formation, ii) refine the magneto-biostratigraphic framework established for this time interval in the Western Foreland Basin of Taiwan, and iii) lay the groundwork for connecting climatic changes in Taiwan during this time period to the wider frame of global climate change. 

How to cite: Vaucher, R., Zeeden, C., Hsieh, A., Kaboth-Bahr, S., Lin, A. T., Horng, C.-S., and Dashtgard, S. E.: Towards an astrochronological tuned age model for the upper Pliocene–lower Pleistocene Western Foreland Basin of Taiwan, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1435,, 2022.

EGU22-1451 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Multiproxy paleoceanography from Broken Ridge pinpoints the onset of Tasman Leakage at 6.6 Ma 

Jing Lyu, Beth Christensen, Gerald Auer, and David De Vleeschouwer

Inter-basinal heat and water exchange play a prominent role in driving global climate change on astronomical timescales, as part of the global thermohaline circulation. Tasman Leakage connects the Pacific and Indian Oceans at an intermediate water depth, south of Australia. Therewith, Tasman Leakage advects heat toward the Indian Ocean, and ultimately toward the Agulhas system. Hence, Tasman Leakage constitutes a non-negligible part of the present-day thermohaline circulation. The onset of Tasman Leakage likely occurred sometime in the Late Miocene (Christensen et al., 2021), but precise geochronology for the establishment of this inter-basinal connection is still lacking. Moreover, Tasman Leakage sensitivity to astronomical forcing remains to be constrained in detail. To understand Tasman Leakage on astronomical timescales, we present a new Miocene-to-recent multi-proxy dataset from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 752 and 754, cored on Broken Ridge (30°53.475’S), southeastern Indian Ocean.

The dataset consists of new X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scans that provide element contents for 18 different elements, along with benthic carbon and oxygen stable isotopic records at 4 cm resolution. The XRF-derived Ca/Fe record is paced by 405-kyr eccentricity between 22 Ma and 13 Ma (early-middle Miocene), but then becomes more sensitive to obliquity and precession forcing. The new high-resolution benthic δ13C record confirms the onset of Tasman Leakage in the Late Miocene, more specifically at 6.6 Ma. This is when the Broken Ridge benthic δ13C signature no longer reflects an Antarctic Intermediate Water signal. The benthic δ18O record shows a strong ~110-kyr eccentricity imprint, indicating that Tasman Leakage might be most sensitive to this astronomical parameter. We conclude that the Neogene nannofossil oozes, preserved on Broken Ridge, constitute an excellent paleoceanographic archive that allows us to fingerprint Tasman Leakage sensitivity to astronomical forcing.

How to cite: Lyu, J., Christensen, B., Auer, G., and De Vleeschouwer, D.: Multiproxy paleoceanography from Broken Ridge pinpoints the onset of Tasman Leakage at 6.6 Ma, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1451,, 2022.

EGU22-1982 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Plio-Pleistocene Perth Basin water temperatures and Leeuwin Current dynamics (Indian Ocean) derived from oxygen and clumped isotope paleothermometry 

David De Vleeschouwer, Marion Peral, Marta Marchegiano, Angelina Füllberg, Niklas Meinicke, Heiko Pälike, Gerald Auer, Benjamin Petrick, Christoph Snoeck, Steven Goderis, and Philippe Claeys

The Pliocene sedimentary record provides a window into Earth’s climate dynamics under warmer-than-present boundary conditions. However, the Pliocene cannot be considered a stable warm climate that constitutes a solid baseline for middle-road future climate projections. Indeed, the increasing availability of time-continuous sedimentary archives (e.g., marine sediment cores) reveals complex temporal and spatial patterns of Pliocene ocean and climate variability on astronomical timescales. The Perth Basin is particularly interesting in that respect because it remains unclear if and how the Leeuwin Current sustained the comparably wet Pliocene climate in West-Australia, as well as how it influenced Southern Hemisphere paleoclimate variability. To constrain Leeuwin Current dynamics in time and space, this project constructed a new orbitally-resolved planktonic foraminifera (Trilobatus sacculifer) stable isotope record (δ18O and clumped isotopes Δ47) for the Plio-Pleistocene (4–2 Ma) interval of International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1459. It complements an existing TEX86 record from the same site and similar planktonic isotope records from the Northern Carnarvon Basin (ODP Site 763 and IODP Site U1463). The comparison of TEX86 and Δ47 paleothermometers reveals that TEX86 likely reflects sea surface temperatures (SST, 23.8–28.9 °C), whereas T. sacculifer Δ47 calcification temperatures probably echo the state of the lower mixed layer and upper thermocline at the studied Site U1459 (18.2–20.8 °C). The isotopic δ18O gradient along a 19° S–29° S latitudinal transect, between 3.9–2.2 Ma, displays large variability, ranging between 0.5 and 2.0 ‰, whereby a low latitudinal gradient is indicative of a strong Leeuwin Current and vice versa. These results challenge the interpretation that suggested a tectonic event in the Indonesian Throughflow as the cause for the rapid steepening of the isotopic gradient (0.9 to 1.5 ‰) around 3.7 Ma. The tectonic interpretation appears obsolete as it is now clear that the 3.7 Ma steepening of the isotopic gradient is intermittent, with flat latitudinal gradients (~0.5 ‰) restored in the latest Pliocene (2.9–2.6 Ma). Still, the new analysis affirms that a combination of astronomical forcing of wind patterns and eustatic sea level controlled Leeuwin Current intensity. A period of relatively weak Leeuwin Current between 3.7 and 3.1 Ma is advocated; a time interval also marked by cooler conditions throughout the Southern Hemisphere. In conclusion, the intensity of the Leeuwin Current and the latitudinal position of the subtropical front are rooted in the same forcing: Heat transport through the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) valve propagated to the temperate zone through Indian Ocean poleward heat transport. The common ITF forcing explains the observed coherence of Southern Hemisphere ocean and climate records.

How to cite: De Vleeschouwer, D., Peral, M., Marchegiano, M., Füllberg, A., Meinicke, N., Pälike, H., Auer, G., Petrick, B., Snoeck, C., Goderis, S., and Claeys, P.: Plio-Pleistocene Perth Basin water temperatures and Leeuwin Current dynamics (Indian Ocean) derived from oxygen and clumped isotope paleothermometry, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1982,, 2022.

EGU22-2038 | Presentations | CL1.1.4 | Highlight

Paleo-ENSO influence on African environmentsand early modern humans 

Stefanie Kaboth-Bahr, William D. Gosling, Ralf Vogelsang, André Bahr, Eleanor M. L. Scerri, Asfawossen Asrat, Andrew S. Cohen, Walter Düsing, Verena Foerster, Henry F. Lamb, Mark A. Maslin, Helen M. Roberts, Frank Schäbitz, and Martin H. Trauth

In this study, we synthesize terrestrial and marine proxy records, spanning the past 620,000 years, to decipher pan-African climate variability and its drivers and potential linkages to hominin evolution. We find a tight correlation between moisture availability across Africa to El Niño Southern Ocean oscillation (ENSO) variability, a manifestation of the Walker Circulation, that was most likely driven by changes in Earth’s eccentricity. Our results demonstrate that low-latitude insolation was a prominent driver of pan-African climate change during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. We argue that these low-latitude climate processes governed the dispersion and evolution of vegetation as well as mammals in eastern and western Africa by increasing resource-rich and stable ecotonal settings thought to have been important to early modern humans.

How to cite: Kaboth-Bahr, S., Gosling, W. D., Vogelsang, R., Bahr, A., Scerri, E. M. L., Asrat, A., Cohen, A. S., Düsing, W., Foerster, V., Lamb, H. F., Maslin, M. A., Roberts, H. M., Schäbitz, F., and Trauth, M. H.: Paleo-ENSO influence on African environmentsand early modern humans, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2038,, 2022.

EGU22-2362 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Orbital-scale deoxygenation trends driven by ventilation in Cretaceous ocean 

Anta-Clarisse Sarr, Marie Laugié, Yannick Donnadieu, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, and François Raisson

Mechanisms driving cyclicity in the marine realm during hothouse climate periods in response to Earth’s orbit variations remains debated. Orbital cycles fingerprint in the oceanographic records results from the effect of terrestrial (eg. weathering-derived nutrient supply, freshwater discharge) and oceanic (eg. productivity, oxygenation) processes, whose respective contribution remains to be defined. Here we investigate the effect of extreme orbital configurations on oxygenation state of the ocean using ocean biogeochemistry simulations with the IPSL-CM5A2 Earth System Model under (CT) Cenomanian-Turonian boundary conditions. We also use an additional inert artificial tracer allowing to compute the age of water masses, corresponding to the time spent since the last contact with the surface. Our simulations show that small ocean ventilation changes triggered by orbitally-induced variations in high latitude deep water formation have strong impact on the oceanic oxygen spatial distribution. It is particularly true for the proto-Atlantic basin which is the less oxygenated basin during the CT (Laugie et al., 2021). The eight sets of orbital parameters tested here imply changes in the Atlantic anoxic seafloor area going from 20 to 80%. All three parameters describing the Earth’s orbit (eccentricity, precession and obliquity) show a substantial control on these fluctuations. We also note that orbital fluctuations result in important changes in continental runoff but the impact remains highly localized to coastal environments – the open ocean mainly responding to the ocean ventilation. Last but not least, changes in productivity induced by the orbital parameters remain spatially heterogeneous and could be responsible for more local signal within a single basin.


Laugié, M., Donnadieu, Y., Ladant, J. B., Bopp, L., Ethé, C., & Raisson, F. (2021). Exploring the impact of Cenomanian paleogeography and marine gateways on oceanic oxygen. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 36(7):e2020PA004202.

How to cite: Sarr, A.-C., Laugié, M., Donnadieu, Y., Ladant, J.-B., and Raisson, F.: Orbital-scale deoxygenation trends driven by ventilation in Cretaceous ocean, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2362,, 2022.

EGU22-3744 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Astronomical Climate Pacing in a Model Framework for Late Triassic Lake Level Cycles 

Jan Landwehrs, Michael Wagreich, Georg Feulner, Matteo Willeit, Jessica H. Whiteside, and Paul E. Olsen

Combining both detailed geological records and climate modeling provides exciting opportunities to understand orbital effects on the early Mesozoic greenhouse climate across the supercontinent Pangaea. Lake sediments from the Newark-Hartford Basins (NHB) of the eastern US record cyclic climate changes in the tropics of Pangaea during the Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic (~233–199 Ma). We explore how the combined climatic effect of orbital forcing, paleogeographic changes and atmospheric pCO2 variations could have contributed to major features of this record.

For this, we assess results from an ensemble of transient, orbitally driven climate simulations for nine geologic timeslices, three atmospheric pCO2 values and two paleogeographic reconstructions. Each simulation is run with an idealized orbital forcing, with precession, modulated by eccentricity, and obliquity oscillating over a 250 kyr interval. The long duration and large number of simulations is achieved by utilizing the fast CLIMBER-X Earth System Model.

A transition from tropical humid to more seasonal and ultimately semi-arid climates is associated with the tectonic drift of the NHB region from the equator to ~20°N. The orbital modulation of the precipitation-evaporation balance that could be recorded in the lake sediments is most pronounced during 220 to 200 Ma, while it is limited by weak seasonality and increasing aridity before and afterwards, respectively. Lower pCO2 values around 205 Ma contribute to drier climates and could have led to the damping of sediment cyclicity observed at this time. Eccentricity-modulated precession dominates the orbital climate response in the NHB area, with maximum humidity associated to high spring-summer insolation and enhanced moisture import from the Tethys sea. High obliquity further amplifies summer precipitation through the seasonally shifting tropical rainfall belt.

We furthermore show how contemporaneous proxy localities, e.g. in the Germanic Basin, Junggar Basin or Colorado Plateau, can also be evaluated in this model framework. Studying the varying climate response in these different areas provides directions towards an integrated picture of global astronomical climate pacing in the Late Triassic. Furthermore, the presented approach is readily applicable to other periods in Earth history.

How to cite: Landwehrs, J., Wagreich, M., Feulner, G., Willeit, M., Whiteside, J. H., and Olsen, P. E.: Astronomical Climate Pacing in a Model Framework for Late Triassic Lake Level Cycles, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3744,, 2022.

EGU22-4667 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Orbital forcing of early Eocene hyperthermal events: A new benthic foraminiferal record from the Indian Ocean, 50-51 Ma 

Nicola Kirby, Sietske Batenburg, Melanie Leng, Tom Dunkley Jones, and Kirsty Edgar

The early Eocene greenhouse climate is characterised by a series of ‘hyperthermal’ events, defined by transient negative excursions in marine carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopes. Proxy records of the larger magnitude hyperthermal events are consistent with massive carbon release to the ocean-atmosphere system and associated with global warming and ocean acidification. Such events therefore represent the best analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. However, the causes and nature of smaller early Eocene hyperthermals, particularly through the early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), are less well understood. We know that hyperthermal events are paced by the 100 kyr (short) and 405 kyr (long) eccentricity cycles, indicating that Earth’s orbital parameters play a key role in driving carbon cycle perturbations, but the precise forcing mechanisms remain unclear. Additionally, few continuous records of the smaller, orbitally-paced hyperthermals exist and there have been no published high-resolution climate records from the Indian Ocean so far from this interval. High-resolution records across the full spectrum of hyperthermal events and from multiple ocean basins are needed to fully identify their cause(s). Here, we constrain the nature and magnitude of environmental change during hyperthermal events O-T in the Indian Ocean using a new, high-resolution benthic stable isotope record from IODP Expedition 369 Site U1514, Indian Ocean, from 50-51 Ma. Using spectral analysis techniques, we identify the dominant periodicities in the benthic stable isotope record and investigate the phasing between stable isotopes and other environmental records from Site U1514, including sedimentary Ca/Fe. We compare the Site U1514 stable isotope record with environmental records across this time interval from other sites to determine the synchronicity of climate and carbon cycle changes between different ocean basins, aiming to further examine the forcing mechanisms of these early Eocene hyperthermal events. 

How to cite: Kirby, N., Batenburg, S., Leng, M., Dunkley Jones, T., and Edgar, K.: Orbital forcing of early Eocene hyperthermal events: A new benthic foraminiferal record from the Indian Ocean, 50-51 Ma, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4667,, 2022.

EGU22-5323 | Presentations | CL1.1.4 | Highlight

The Resonant Tidal Evolution of the Earth-Moon Distance 

Mohammad Farhat, Pierre Auclair-Desrotour, Gwenaël Boué, and Jacques Laskar

Due to tidal interactions in the Earth-Moon system, the spin of the Earth slows down with time and the Moon drifts away. This present recession of the Moon is now measured with great precision using Lunar Laser Ranging, but it has been realised, more than fifty years ago, that simple solid-Earth tidal models extrapolated backwards in time lead to an age of the Moon that is by far incompatible with the geochronological and geochemical evidence. Since then, in order to evade this paradox, more elaborated models have been proposed, taking into account the tidal frequency-dependent oceanic dissipation; but none so far has been able to fit both the estimated lunar age and the present rate of lunar recession. In this talk, we present a physical model that reconciles these two constraints and yields a unique solution of the tidal history. This solution fits remarkably well the available geological proxies and consolidates the cyclostratigraphic method, although such a fit was not imposed. The resulting evolution involves multiple crossings of resonances in the oceanic dissipation that are associated with significant and rapid variations in the lunar orbital distance, the Earth’s length of the day, obliquity, and precession frequency. 

How to cite: Farhat, M., Auclair-Desrotour, P., Boué, G., and Laskar, J.: The Resonant Tidal Evolution of the Earth-Moon Distance, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5323,, 2022.

EGU22-6073 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Astronomical forcing as a trigger of abrupt climate changes at the end of interglacials 

Qiuzhen Yin, Zhipeng Wu, Andre Berger, Hugues Goosse, and David Hodell

Many paleoclimate records show that the end of interglacials of the late Pleistocene was marked by abrupt cooling events and increased millennial variability. Strong abrupt cooling occurring when climate was still in a warm interglacial condition is puzzling and its cause remains uncertain. In this study, we performed transient climate simulations for all the eleven interglacial (sub)stages of the past 800,000 years with the model LOVECLIM1.3 (Yin et al., 2021). Our results show that there exists a threshold in the astronomically induced insolation below which abrupt changes at the end of interglacials occur. When the summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high latitudes decreases to a critical value, it triggers a strong, abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a strong cooling in the NH followed by high-amplitude variability. The mechanism involves sea ice feedbacks in the Northern Nordic Sea and the Labrador Sea. Similar abrupt oscillations happen in the simulated temperature, precipitation and vegetation from low to high latitudes. Our simulated results are supported by observations from many marine and terrestrial records, including for example the planktic d18O record from the Iberian Margin, the Greenland ice core record and the Chinese speleothem records. Our study shows that the astronomically-induced slow variation of insolation could trigger abrupt climate changes. The insolation threshold occurred at the end of each interglacial of the past 800,000 years, suggesting its fundamental role in terminating the warm climate conditions of the interglacials. Our results show that the next insolation threshold will occur in 50,000 years, suggesting an exceptionally long interglacial ahead, which is in line with what has been suggested by previous modelling studies. 

Reference:  Yin Q.Z., Wu Z.P., Berger A., Goosse H., Hodell D., 2021. Insolation triggered abrupt weakening of Atlantic circulation at the end of interglacials. Science, 373, 1035-1040, DOI: 10.1126/science.abg1737

How to cite: Yin, Q., Wu, Z., Berger, A., Goosse, H., and Hodell, D.: Astronomical forcing as a trigger of abrupt climate changes at the end of interglacials, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6073,, 2022.

EGU22-6423 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Integrating astronomical solutions and geological observations 

Matthias Sinnesael and Jacques Laskar

Some of the large climatic changes of the past originate in the variations of the Earth’s orbit and of its spin axis resulting from the gravitational pull of the planets and the Moon. These variations can be traced over several millions of years back in time (Ma) in the geological sedimentary records (e.g. Milankovitch cycles). Over the last decades, the Earth’s orbital and spin solutions have been used to establish a geological timescale based on the astronomical solutions. Nevertheless, extending this procedure through the Mesozoic Era (66-252 Ma) and beyond is difficult, as the solar system motion is chaotic. It will thus not be possible to retrieve the precise orbital motion of the planets beyond 60 Ma from their present state.

Astrogeo, a project funded by the European Research Council (ERC), will use the geological record as an input to break the horizon of predictability of 60 Ma resulting from the chaotic motion of the planets. This will be achieved by considering statistical methods and by using ancient geological data as an additional constraint in obtaining astronomical solutions. Astrogeo aims to provide a template orbital solution for the Earth that could be used for paleoclimate studies over any geological time. This will open a new era where the geological records will be used to retrieve the orbital evolution of the solar system. It will thus open a new observational window for retrieving not only the history of the Earth, but of the entire solar system. Here, we want to reach out to the broader cyclostratigraphic community to discuss suitable procedures and data sets to couple both theoretical solutions and geological observations. In particular, we are interested in examining high-quality data sets with clear and well-constrained (single or combined) expressions of the astronomical parameters of eccentricity, precession and obliquity.

How to cite: Sinnesael, M. and Laskar, J.: Integrating astronomical solutions and geological observations, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6423,, 2022.

EGU22-6429 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Perturbations of volcanic CO2 emission to orbital paced climate-carbon cycle 

Fenghao Liu, Enqing Huang, Jinlong Du, Wentao Ma, Xiaolin Ma, Lucas Lourens, and Jun Tian

How the global carbon cycle and climate changes interact on orbital timescales under different boundary conditions remains elusive. Previous studies have found that changes in global ice-sheet volume and marine carbon cycle are synchronized at the eccentricity time scales with a slight lead of climate-cryosphere relative to carbon cycle throughout Oligo-Miocene (~34-6 Ma). Here, we analyze the evolutive phase relationship between benthic foraminiferal oxygen (δ18O) and carbon isotope (δ13C) to reveal an unnoticed phenomenon that variations of oceanic carbon cycle could lead those of global ice-sheet volume on 405-kyr cycle during Miocene Climate Optimum (MCO, ~17-14 Ma), which was a profound warming interval partly ascribed to the carbon emission from the eruption of the Columbia River Basalts Group (CRBG). Eccentricity sensitivity analysis indicate a relatively constant response of ice sheet to orbital forcing during MCO. Combined the results of box model, we propose that volcanic CO2 input accelerates the response of marine carbon cycle to orbital forcing. The enhanced greenhouses effect probably had strengthened the low-latitude hydrological cycle and chemical weathering and ultimately generated the δ13C-lead-δ18O scenario.

How to cite: Liu, F., Huang, E., Du, J., Ma, W., Ma, X., Lourens, L., and Tian, J.: Perturbations of volcanic CO2 emission to orbital paced climate-carbon cycle, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6429,, 2022.

EGU22-11342 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

Astronomical modulation of oxygenation conditions during the Telychian (Silurian) recorded in the Sommerodde-1 core from Bornholm Denmark. 

Michiel Arts, David De Vleeschouwer, Niels H. Schovsbo, Nicolas Thibault, Arnie T. Nielsen, and Anne-Christine Da Silva

The Silurian (443.8-419.2 million years ago) is a period of important biodiversity changes, dynamic climate change, including strong sea level fluctuations and the development of low-oxygen conditions in the ocean1-2-3. To date the Silurian lacks in (cyclostratigraphic) age constraints and in understanding in the way astronomical cycles modulate the Silurian climate, which hinders our understanding of Silurian climate dynamics. To assess the role of astronomical cycles in the pacing of the Silurian climate, we study the imprint of astronomical cycles on the record of the Sommerode-1 core from Bornholm, Denmark (53.65-118.66m).The core contains a near continuous Telychian record including the SOCIE and Valgu carbon isotope excursions/events4-5-6.  The core was scanned at University of Bremen/ MARUM (November 2021) using the Bruker M4 Tornado µXRF scanner, enabling for a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic study of the Telychian.

XRF core measurements provided semi-quantitative element data, spaced at 0.5 mm, were converted into element concentrations (ppm) using a set of reference standards. A Principal Component Analysis simplified the variability in our dataset into 3 components. PC1 has high loadings for Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Co, and is interpreted as a detrital component. PC2 has high loadings for Ca and Mn, and is interpreted as an indicator of oxygenation conditions. PC3 has high loadings for S, indicative for the sulphides/dysoxic/anoxic conditions-8-9.

Peaks for Mn at 69-85m and S at 85-104m, indicate that part of the core (69-85 m) was deposited under oxic conditions while another part of the core (85-104 m) was deposited under anoxic/dysoxic conditions. We note that the transition to oxic conditions at 90 m coincides with the Valgu isotopic event4 while the SOCIE4 (80-70 m) event occurs during oxic conditions. Spectral analysis (wavelet, MTM and Evolutive Harmonic Analysis (EHA)) on the 3 components reveals the imprints of long and short eccentricity, obliquity and precession. An EHA spectra of the detrital component was used to trace the long eccentricity in the depth domain which was used to infer changes in sedimentation rates. The sedimentation rates are used to convert the record from the depth to time domain. Astronomical cycles filtered from the record in the time domain show that astronomical cycles exert a great control on the depositional record.  Indicating the astronomical cycles modulated the Telychian climate which in term paced oxygenation conditions at the sea-floor.

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8. Ferriday, T., & Montenari, M. (2016). Stratigraphy & Timescales (Vol. 1).

9. Rothwell, R. G., & Croudace, I. W. (2015). Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. (Vol. 2)

How to cite: Arts, M., De Vleeschouwer, D., Schovsbo, N. H., Thibault, N., Nielsen, A. T., and Da Silva, A.-C.: Astronomical modulation of oxygenation conditions during the Telychian (Silurian) recorded in the Sommerodde-1 core from Bornholm Denmark., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11342,, 2022.

EGU22-12044 | Presentations | CL1.1.4

A new conceptual model to explain the mid-Pleistocene transition 

Etienne Legrain, Frédéric Parrenin, and Emilie Capron

Pleistocene climate is primarily driven by changes of the Earth’s orbital parameters. However, the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) (~0.8-1.2Myr) which corresponds to a gradual change of interglacial-glacial cyclicity from weak 40kyr climatic cycles to the current strong 100kyr cycles, remains largely unexplained. So far, models only based on orbital forcing were not capable to reproduce this transition, discarding the hypothesis of an orbitally-driven transition. Internal Earth system climate causes were thus explored as primary drivers of the MPT, as a gradual decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentrations or the removal of the regolith beneath the northern hemisphere ice sheets. 
Here we present an improved version of the conceptual model of Parrenin and Paillard (2012) modelling ice volume variations over the past 2Myr. Our model switches between two states, a glaciation state and a deglaciation one, following a threshold mechanism related to the input parameters and the modelled ice volume itself. The modelled ice volume is compared to the ice volume reconstructions inferred from paleodata. 
 We reproduced the MPT using three different models. The “orbital” model which only use orbital forcing parameters as input. The “gradual” model, which is similar to the orbital model plus a continuous drop of a physical parameter in addition to orbital forcing parameters. The “abrupt” model, also similar to the orbital model plus a time-determined abrupt variation of a physical parameter in addition to orbital forcing parameters. 
For the first time, our conceptual model is able to simulate qualitatively the Mid-Pleistocene Transition with only changes in the orbital forcing parameters, reproducing the change in frequency and amplitude of the transition. Moreover, the hypothesis of a coupled influence of orbital forcing and a decreasing deglaciation threshold parameter is by far a better hypothesis than considering an abrupt change regarding our model results. In fact, the “gradual” model contains less parameters and a smaller data-model standard deviation of residuals than the “abrupt” model. Orbital forcing could thus have enabled the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. A combined influence with a decreasing parameter, such atmospheric  CO2 concentration, would have triggered this transition.

Parrenin, F., & Paillard, D. (2012). Terminations VI and VIII (∼ 530 and∼ 720 kyr BP) tell us the importance of obliquity and precession in the triggering of deglaciations. Climate of the Past, 8(6), 2031-2037.

How to cite: Legrain, E., Parrenin, F., and Capron, E.: A new conceptual model to explain the mid-Pleistocene transition, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12044,, 2022.

The paleomagnetic data obtained from the Neoproterozoic rocks stratigraphically related to glacial deposits suggest the ice sheets' near-equatorial occurrence. Based on these data, the Snowball Earth hypothesis proposing the Cryogenian period's total glaciations has been developed and became almost a paradigm. Quaternary glacial successions usually contain varves (seasonally laminated deposits) as they were formed in high latitudes. Therefore, we suggest that varves provide an independent sedimentological test of the paleolatitude position of Precambrian glacial deposits.

We carried out a sedimentological study on thinly laminated rhythmites in the Neoproterozoic glacial deposits in Southern Siberia, and found that they have features characteristic of seasonal varves. The studied rhythmites interstratify the Bolshoi Patom and Nichatka Formations' diamictites at the base of the Dal'nyaya Taiga Group. The seasonality is clearly manifested in the rhythmites of the Nichatka Formation. The rhythmites are represented by interbedding of millimeter-scale siltstones and mudstones with sandy and gravelly admixture. The coarse-sandy and gravelly component is interpreted as ice-rafted clasts, as it has characteristic features of dropstones and contains unconfined till pellets. Ice rafted clasts saturate siltstone laminas and are practically absent in argillite layers.
Thus, argillite laminas can be confidently recognized as deposits of the cold season, during which ice melting and iceberg rafting ceased. On the other hand, siltstone layers with dropstones are deposits of the warmer melting season. The rhythmite's diurnal nature is excluded by its complex structure of the silty layer of the rhythm, which is caused by several sedimentation events separated in time.  The entire set of microfacies of the Nichatka Formation rhythmites reveals similarities with varve microfacies produced by variable flows in ice-contact proglacial lakes. The upper part of the Bolshoi Patom Formation's rhythmites is also formed by varve-like pairs of thin siltstone and mudstone laminas. Dropstones are virtually absent in them, and, therefore, the seasonal nature of the rhythm is less confidently established. The siltstone within the rhythm may have a massive or normally graded texture. The argillite is approximately equal in thickness to the siltstone lamina (about 0.5 mm). The thickness of a pair of siltstone and argillite laminas may remain almost constant when more than 50 pairs are observed. This regularity of laminas thickness in rhythmite is not typical of a tidal setting, but it is difficult to rule out this rhythmite's diurnal nature.  These deposits display high similarity to varves produced by low energy suspension settling during the melt season. The observed seasonal nature of the rhythmites in the glacial deposits of the Dal'nyaya Taiga Group evidence against the validity of the Snowball Earth hypothesis, which assumes the presence of glacial caps near the equator in the Neoproterozoic. The study was supported by RSF Grant No. 20-77-10066.

How to cite: Rud'ko, S. and Shatsillo, A.: Varves versus Snowball: Seasonal rhythmite in the glacial deposits of the Nichatka Formation (South Siberia)., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6598,, 2022.

EGU22-6669 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Understanding formation of ice wedges and origin of trapped greenhouse gas at Zyryanka, Northeastern Siberia 

Nayeon Ko, Hansu Park, Hyejung Jung, Go Iwahana, Alexander Fedorov, and Jinho Ahn

Multiple geochemical analyses may help us better constrain the ice-wedge formation and in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) production mechanisms. Here we present new results from ice-wedge ice sampled at Zyryanka, Northeastern Siberia (65°93’N, 150°89’E). The plant remains and CO2 gas were analyzed for 14C dating, and we obtained from 810 to 1750 years before 1950 CE for the Zyryanka ice wedge. δ(N2/Ar) of the ice wedges ranges from -17.51 to -3.53 % with regard to modern air, indicating that the Zyryanka ice wedge was formed by both liquid water and dry snow. On the other hand, the δ(O2/Ar) value of the Zyryanka ice wedges ranges from -72.88 to -37.58 % with regard to modern air, implying oxygen gas was consumed considerably by respiration of microorganisms in the ice-wedge ice. We also observed correlations among the three greenhouse gas species and oxygen gas concentrations. N2O and CO2 concentrations show a strong positive correlation (r = 0.94, p=0.01). We also found that the melting fraction (estimated from N2/Ar) is positively correlated with CO2 (r=0.81, p=0.01) and CH4 (r=0.87, p<0.05). Furthermore, O2 concentration is negatively correlated with the CH4 concentrations (r = -0.41, p<0.05) which may imply that CH4 production is associated with biological oxygen consumption. The δ18O of ice melt ranges from -28.6 to -19.1 ‰ for the ice wedge and adjacent soil samples, showing a symmetric structure with low δ18O values in the ice wedge parts and high in the adjacent soils. Comparing with the δ18O value of modern precipitation in the Zyryanka region, it can be inferred that the ice wedge was mainly formed by filling with cold seasonal precipitation. Our study shows that the gas mixing ratios in ice wedges and water stable isotope analysis may help better understanding the biogeochemical environments during and after the formation of ice wedges.

How to cite: Ko, N., Park, H., Jung, H., Iwahana, G., Fedorov, A., and Ahn, J.: Understanding formation of ice wedges and origin of trapped greenhouse gas at Zyryanka, Northeastern Siberia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6669,, 2022.

EGU22-7172 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Deep-time paleoclimate archive in High Arctic, Svalbard, Norway 

Aleksandra Smyrak-Sikora, Lars Eivind Augland, Peter Betlem, Sten-Andreas Grundvåg, William Helland-Hansen, Mads E. Jelby, Maria A. Jensen, Malte M. Jochmann, Erik P. Johanessen, Morgan T. Jones, Maayke Koevoets-Westerduin, Gareth S. Lord, Atle Mørk, Snorre Olaussen, Sverre Planke, Kim Senger, Lars Stemmerik, Madeleine Vickers, Kasia K Śliwińska, and Valentin Zuchuat

An appraisal of ancient Earth’s climate dynamics is crucial for understanding the modern climate system and predicting how this might change in the future. Major climate-shift events in the Earth’s past demonstrate the scale, duration and response of the climate system to various global and local climate stressors.   

More than 650 million years of deep-time paleoclimate changes are archived in the sedimentary succession of Svalbard; an archipelago located in the Norwegian High Arctic. The excellently outcropping geological successions of Svalbard date back to the Proterozoic, and record both temporal and spatial changing climatic and environmental conditions strongly linked to the northward continental drift of the archipelago from southern hemisphere in Precambrian to its present-day Polar latitudes.

The oldest deposits that record major climatic events and associated environmental perturbations in Svalbard include tillites related to several Cryogenian glacial events and the overlying Ediacaran carbonates. The Lower Paleozoic succession documents episodes of marine biodiversification, including the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), which is linked to cooling of previously warm tropical oceans. The arid to semi-arid climate of the Devonian promoted a terrestrial plant diversification. The Lower Carboniferous coal-bearing strata were deposited in humid and tropical climate settings prevailing in northern Pangea. The Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian succession consists of interbedded carbonates, evaporites and red siliciclastics, including remains of paleokarst. The continued northward drift into subtropical latitudes promoted a change back to arid to semi-arid climates, occurring during the overall global icehouse conditions. During the Late Permian, marine sponges were occupying most of the ecological niches, leading to the deposition of weathering-resistant spiculites. But these ecosystems were rapidly and dramatically impacted by the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME), which lasted well into the Early Triassic.

By the Mesozoic, Svalbard was approaching mid-latitudes. The exposed in Svalbard deposits of Triassic mega-delta features evidence for a temperate or humid climate, indicated by thick coal beds that transitioned to an arid climatic environment at the end of the Triassic and Early Jurassic succession with caliche and calcareous soil profiles. The Lower Cretaceous strata (deposited at c. 66 °N) record several cold snaps despite the overall greenhouse climate characterizing the period and most notably the global crisis associated with the Aptian oceanic anoxic event 1a (OAE1a).

By the Paleogene, Svalbard had reached Arctic latitudes, and as characterised by overall moderate to warm temperate climate, punctuated by warming episodes, including the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal maximum (PETM). The Neogene cooling is missing from onshore records, but high-resolution glacial climate evidence exists offshore and from geomorphology and unconsolidated strata of Late Quaternary-Holocene age.

In this contribution, we synthesize former and ongoing studies of deep-time paleoclimate in Svalbard and provide knowledge gaps to optimize the use of Svalbard as an archive for deep-time paleoclimate research. The exceptional exposures, accessibility, and completeness of the 650 million long sedimentary records makes Svalbard unique archive for deep-time paleoclimate research. In addition to Svalbard’s excellent outcrops, fully cored research and coal exploration boreholes provide an excellent foundation for further research with minimal environmental consequences.

How to cite: Smyrak-Sikora, A., Augland, L. E., Betlem, P., Grundvåg, S.-A., Helland-Hansen, W., Jelby, M. E., Jensen, M. A., Jochmann, M. M., Johanessen, E. P., Jones, M. T., Koevoets-Westerduin, M., Lord, G. S., Mørk, A., Olaussen, S., Planke, S., Senger, K., Stemmerik, L., Vickers, M., Śliwińska, K. K., and Zuchuat, V.: Deep-time paleoclimate archive in High Arctic, Svalbard, Norway, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7172,, 2022.

EGU22-7286 | Presentations | SSP2.4

First quantitative constraints on the Pliensbachian-Toarcian warming in polar regions 

Thomas Letulle, Guillaume Suan, Mikhail Rogov, Mathieu Daëron, Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier, Oleg Lutikov, Bruno Reynard, Gilles Montagnac, and Christophe Lécuyer

One of the most dramatic warming episodes of the Mesozoic occurred near the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition (Early Jurassic). The occurrence of abundant exotic clasts and glendonites in marine strata of Siberia suggests cold conditions during the late Pliensbachian, which may have led to the episodic growth of high latitude ice-sheets. These conditions ended abruptly during the early Toarcian when temperature rose rapidly across an episode of global biogeochemical perturbation known as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE). The rapid marine transgression coinciding with the T-OAE onset has been tentatively attributed to the rapid demise of these polar ice-sheets, which possibly released large amounts of methane in the atmosphere through permafrost thawing. Nevertheless, the scarce quantitative estimates of Pliensbachian-Toarcian temperatures have exclusively been obtained from low paleolatitude sites. Plus, existing temperature records are mostly based on oxygen isotope thermometry and hence remain equivocal in the absence of constraints on the ocean oxygen composition of Pliensbachian-Toarcian oceans and its temporal variability. Clumped isotope (Δ47) data from aragonite bivalve shells from one NE Siberian site have recently provided the first quantitative evidence for extreme Toarcian polar warmth, with marine temperature estimates exceeding ~15°C north of the Anabar shield. In this study, we present new Δ47 data from bivalve samples from Tyung River, south of the Anabar shield that allow to substantially expand this record both spatially and temporally. Clumped isotope data from aragonite shells confirm elevated marine temperatures (~13°C) at the end of the T-OAE in polar areas some 850 km away from the previous record. Upper Pliensbachian calcite shells of Harpax collected from coastal to deltaic, boulder-bearing deposits of a nearby site record much lower temperature (~3°C) and extreme 18O-depletion of environmental waters (δ18O = -6.5‰VSMOW). These results provide the first quantitative evidence for near-freezing polar temperatures during the Late Pliensbachian, which is a key prerequisite for the hypothesis of episodic ice-sheet growth prior to the T-OAE. Beyond glacio-eustasy, our new data offer a rare glimpse of extreme changes in polar temperatures across a transition from coldhouse to greenhouse climate and will certainly prove useful for future earth system simulations of Mesozoic climates. 

How to cite: Letulle, T., Suan, G., Rogov, M., Daëron, M., Vinçon-Laugier, A., Lutikov, O., Reynard, B., Montagnac, G., and Lécuyer, C.: First quantitative constraints on the Pliensbachian-Toarcian warming in polar regions, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7286,, 2022.

EGU22-7362 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Early Triassic Cycling of Pyrogenic Carbon in Northern High Latitudes 

Franziska R. Blattmann, Zoneibe A. S. Luz, Torsten Vennemann, Hugo Bucher, Elke Schneebeli-Hermann, and Clayton R. Magill

The Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) is considered to be the most severe extinction in Earth’s history. Following this extinction, the Early Triassic is known as an interval of divergent biotic recovery patterns, with several periods of unfavorable environmental conditions as suggested by global fluctuations in carbon isotope compositions of both organic and inorganic carbon reservoirs (e.g., Payne et al., 2004; Galfetti et al., 2007). Despite these global carbon isotope excursions, little is known about the evolution of the organic carbon cycle. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of long-term organic carbon cycle dynamics, in particular the influence of pyrogenic carbon. Initial results for the Smithian and Spathian from sections sampled in Svalbard show an increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the Spathian. Particularly, phenanthrene and anthracene concentrations increase amid the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB). These increases coincide with increased d18Ophosphate values (approx. 14 ‰ to 17 ‰) measured for conodonts in the same locality and are suggestive of a rapid cooling at the SSB. Global temperature decline in the late Smithian would decrease corresponding precipitation intensities, particularly in high latitude regions (Goudemand et al. 2019). Decreasing precipitation intensity generates much less runoff that, in turn, is associated with increases in wildfire activity in high latitude regions (Grosse et al. 2011). Increased wildfire activity may have contributed to increased atmospheric pCO2 levels. In contrast, incomplete combustion of organic matter would also form a recalcitrant terrestrial organic carbon pool, which could act as a carbon sink.

How to cite: Blattmann, F. R., Luz, Z. A. S., Vennemann, T., Bucher, H., Schneebeli-Hermann, E., and Magill, C. R.: Early Triassic Cycling of Pyrogenic Carbon in Northern High Latitudes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7362,, 2022.

EGU22-8394 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Holocene environmental changes inferred from pollen record of Nordenskiöld Land alluvium sequences (West Spitsbergen Island): new data and review 

Diana Soloveva, Sergei Verkulich, Larisa Savelieva, and Aleksey Petrov

The central part of West Spitsbergen, Nordenskiöld Land, is characterized by comparably small extension of glaciers, high landscape diversity and the long-term development of river valleys. In doing so the number of objects suitable for paleobotanical, in particular, palynological research is limited. Holocene climate and vegetation in numerous studies were reconstructed by using palaeobotanical data from lake sediments and peat sequences. Fluvial sediments are widespread and include both terrigenous and organic deposits, but studies focussing on alluvium archives are rare. Such records relate to Coles and Gröndalen valleys.

During the researches of the Russian Arctic expedition in the Svalbard archipelago in 2019, the outcrop of marine sediments overlain by an alluvial stratum (with a general thickness of 4.2 m) was found and studied on the right slope of Semmeldalen valley (16 m a.s.l.). The sediments are represented by sand and silt with Mytilus edulis shells in situ (0.2 m), which are covered by gravel-pebble material (2.0 m), followed by stratum of interlayered silt, sand, loam with plant remains lenses and layers (2.0 m). The laboratory studies included radiocarbon dating and pollen analysis. Radiocarbon dating results show that the studied deposits were formed in the period from 9300 to 3500 cal BP.

According to pollen data, six stages of vegetation and climate changes were distinguished.  The first stage - about 9300 - 9000 cal. BP corresponds to the stage of sedimentation in a shallow sea bay under relatively favourable environmental conditions. The deposits contain rare microfossils of poorly preserved shrub forms. The almost total absence of Quaternary pollen and a spore in the second stage - gravel-pebble sequence - reflects a high rate of sedimentation in the river mouth during sea regression.  About 8700 cal BP (stage 3) the subshrub-sedge tundra developed in a relatively warm and humid climate. Following (about 8300 cal BP) it changed by the willow-sedge tundra (stage 4). The low content of microfossils at this stage is evidence of an increase in river runoff and, probably, an increase in the amount of atmospheric precipitation. Most probably study records contain a hiatus in sedimentation between 8000 - 4000 cal BP. The fifth stage is the increase in pollen amount and development of the willow-motley-grass tundra. The sixth stage reflects modern vegetation - willow-grass tundra.

The obtained dates and lithology description allow us to make a preliminary conclusion that a sharp decrease in sea level occurred about 9000 cal BP, thereby determining a radical restructuring of the natural environment of the study area. Preliminary results compared with published data show that there are local differences in valley development and environmental conditions changes in Central Svalbard during the Holocene.

How to cite: Soloveva, D., Verkulich, S., Savelieva, L., and Petrov, A.: Holocene environmental changes inferred from pollen record of Nordenskiöld Land alluvium sequences (West Spitsbergen Island): new data and review, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8394,, 2022.

EGU22-10379 | Presentations | SSP2.4 | Highlight

A seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean during the Last Interglacial 

Flor Vermassen, Matt O'Regan, Agatha de Boer, Gabriel West, and Helen K. Coxall

The extent of Arctic sea-ice during the Last Interglacial is poorly known. Climate models and sediment-based reconstructions generally suggest a relatively extensive ice cover, comparable to the modern day. Here, we show that Arctic sea-ice was much more reduced than previously assumed, with summers being ice-free. Our new evidence stems from a series of central Arctic Ocean sediment cores, including sites that underlie the thickest parts of the modern Arctic ice pack. Microfossil analysis reveals that the Arctic Ocean was invaded by Turborotalita quinqueloba, a typically subpolar planktonic foraminifer that is strongly associated with chilled Atlantic waters in the modern North Atlantic Ocean, and which is absent in modern sediments in the central Arctic Ocean. Given that the modern Arctic Ocean is characterised by a pronounced halocline with Atlantic waters subducting beneath a fresh and cool upper water mass, our findings suggest a shallowing of those Atlantic waters in the Arctic Ocean during the Last Interglacial. This process, dubbed ‘atlantification’, would be associated with retreating sea-ice, allowing T. quinqueloba to invade. Since the onset of the atlantification of the Arctic Ocean in response to climate change is increasingly being reported, we suggest that the Last Interglacial may serve as an important analogue for studying a fully-atlantified, seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean.


How to cite: Vermassen, F., O'Regan, M., de Boer, A., West, G., and Coxall, H. K.: A seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean during the Last Interglacial, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10379,, 2022.

EGU22-11180 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Identification and characterization of vegetation loss during the last 50,000 years in Beringia 

Jeremy Courtin, Inger Alsos, Boris Biskaborn, Bernhard Diekmann, Yongsong Huang, Youri Lammers, Martin Melles, Luidmila Pestryakova, Luise Schulte, Kathleen Stoof-Leichsenring, and Ulrike Herzschuh

Ongoing climate change causes a global biodiversity loss and species extinction by reducing population size and decreasing genetic diversity. Massive extinction events happened in the past with the Megafauna extinction as the latest example. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition also witnessed the loss of the broadly established steppe-tundra biota, spanning most of Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene and supporting Pleistocene megafauna at the time. Understanding past extinction events via the investigation of Quaternary records can strengthen the current methods to forecast the effects of global warming on ecosystems. If loss of other organism groups were proportional to what has been shown for mammals, a large part of the Pleistocene steppe-tundra biota might have gone extinct. However, few example are known. The improved taxonomic resolution and high detectability of sedimentary ancient DNA provide a new tool to explore this. Here, we investigate potential plant taxa loss in the Northern Hemisphere between the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition using sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding. We summarized data from 500 samples comprising nine lake sediment cores from North-East-Asia and North-America spanning the last 50.000 years. Using patterns of past plant diversity (appearance-disappearance through time), we built communities to detect past taxa non-present in modern databases inferring potential candidates for extinction. Our results suggest that vegetation was resilient until the Pleistocene to Holocene transition and that loss appeared in parallel to the Megafauna extinction. Finally, we characterized this vegetation loss and identified that more specialist taxa contributing less to beta diversity are more sensitive to potential extinction than other taxa. This work holds great potential to reveal new insights into the evolution of the fragile boreal plant communities and the processes leading to extinction of species.

How to cite: Courtin, J., Alsos, I., Biskaborn, B., Diekmann, B., Huang, Y., Lammers, Y., Melles, M., Pestryakova, L., Schulte, L., Stoof-Leichsenring, K., and Herzschuh, U.: Identification and characterization of vegetation loss during the last 50,000 years in Beringia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11180,, 2022.

EGU22-11379 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Stratigraphy of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age glacial sequences in Tasmania (Australia): implications for the glaciation in southern Gondwana 

Luca Zurli, Gianluca Cornamusini, Giovanni Pio Liberato, and Paolo Conti

The Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) in one of the coldest periods in the Earth history which led to the development of ice covers across the entire Gondwana from Carboniferous to Permian. The LPIA view is changing from a single ice sheet covering the entire Gondwana to a series of small and diachronous ice caps widespread through the supercontinent. Stratigraphic studies and facies analysis are key tools for the evaluation of the paleo-environmental depositional setting and, consequently, of the style of glaciation.

Tasmania is a key region because it was settled between northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and Australia and the LPIA deposits could help to provide links between the two sectors of Gondwana. Tasmania constituted a sedimentary basin in the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic and thick sedimentary sequence, both marine and terrestrial, known as Parmeener Supergroup, crops out. The lowermost part of the Lower Parmeener Supergroup, consisting in the Wynyard Tillite and its correlative throughout the region, recorded glacial sedimentation linked with ice caps that developed in the region.

Here, we provide a detailed sedimentological analysis of two drillcores which recovered glacial sequences deposited in the Tasman Basin. The cores were placed into two separate sub-basins: the first hole, named Ross 1, is located in the central part of Tasmania and recorded ca. 60m of glaciogenic rocks of the Stockers Tillite; the second, named Cygnet 3, is located in the southern part of the island and recorded ca. 200m of glaciogenic rocks belonging to the Truro Tillite. The centimetric scale sedimentological analyses allow the identification of 14 lithofacies which were grouped into 6 facies association on the basis of depositional genesis. Facies associations vary from possibly sub-glacial or ice contact to ice distal. Deposition is dominated both by gravity and sediment remobilization processes and suspension settling with ice rafted debris accumulation. All of them are indicative of subaqueous deposition, likely glacimarine. Moreover, along the succession the glacial sequence stratigraphy approach was applied and glacial system tracts and bounding surfaces which define glacial sequences were identified. The stacking pattern of the facies associations allow to demonstrate that the glacial sequences record phases of advance and retreat of the glacial front into the basin within the main end of the main glacial phase. The facies associations, mainly interpreted as gravity driven deposits, together with the thin thickness, show that Ross 1 core was located in a basin margin position and that possibly recorded sub-glacial erosion, while Cygnet 3 core, which have greater thickness, shows facies associations mainly related with suspension settling, indicating a more basinal position. Petrographic analysis of the gravel size fraction constituting the diamictite and the ice rafted debris shows difference in the lithological composition of the two formations, sustaining the hypothesis that the sub-basins were fed by different ice caps.

How to cite: Zurli, L., Cornamusini, G., Liberato, G. P., and Conti, P.: Stratigraphy of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age glacial sequences in Tasmania (Australia): implications for the glaciation in southern Gondwana, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11379,, 2022.

EGU22-11897 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Uneven preservation of ancient DNA along lake sediment cores: A case study of high-latitude and high-elevation lakes 

Weihan Jia, Ugur Cabuk, Kathleen R. Stoof-Leichsenring, Inger G. Alsos, Youri Lammers, Boris K. Biskaborn, and Ulrike Herzschuh

Although sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) is increasingly used to reconstruct past ecosystem changes, we do not yet know much about its preservation conditions across geological time, resulting in potential biases and uncertainties in data interpretation. In this study, we obtained sedaDNA records from around 15 lakes from the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions and the Tibetan Plateau covering the last 2 to 80 ka BP. In addition to the four preservation proxies recently introduced by Jia et al. (2021) (, some new potential proxies of plant DNA metabarcoding (e.g., dissimilarity between PCR replicates) and metagenomics (e.g., average DNA fragment length, duplication rate, guanine-cytosine content, and deamination rate) have also been applied to quantify the extent of ancient DNA preservation and compared with other environmental proxy records from the cores. So far, our preliminary results from Lake Ilirney (67°21’N, 168°19’E) show that DNA content generally decreases along the core over the last 18 ka BP and then maintains at a relatively stable level up to the bottom of the core (ca. 53.4 ka BP), which is consistent with the variations in lake organic productivity reflected by TC, TOC, TOC/TN, pollen and diatom abundance, and Br. In addition, sedaDNA preservation conditions revealed by our preservation proxies are variable within the core. Good sedaDNA preservation is associated with strong physical weathering and glacial abrasion in the catchment, as indicated by high K/Ti and low Zr/Rb values, resulting in increased clastic input of clay minerals and fine sediments, which favors the adsorption of DNA molecules to sediment particles. This process might also help to deepen the lake and increase its water conductivity, which is beneficial for DNA adsorption and preservation. No clear correlation is found between sedaDNA preservation and paleoclimatic changes reconstructed by fossil pollen records. It should be noted that our results may also be influenced by the ability of the DNA extraction protocols we used to recover DNA from different types of sediments. To conclude, sedaDNA preservation may be highly influenced by sediment type and catchment erosion rate, and glacial lakes appear to be promising for sedaDNA studies in the future. Further analyses of sedaDNA records from other lakes are pending and will be finalized and presented at EGU 2022.

How to cite: Jia, W., Cabuk, U., R. Stoof-Leichsenring, K., G. Alsos, I., Lammers, Y., K. Biskaborn, B., and Herzschuh, U.: Uneven preservation of ancient DNA along lake sediment cores: A case study of high-latitude and high-elevation lakes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11897,, 2022.

EGU22-12021 | Presentations | SSP2.4

A rare record of late Neogene glaciation from the north east Greenland margin 

Paul Knutz, Tove Nielsen, Kasia Sliwinska, Michael Fyhn, John Hopper, Anne Jennings, Paul Bierman, Andrew Christ, Lee Corbett, and Alan Hidy

Studies based on deep ocean drilling cores points to North-East Greenland as a focal point for ice sheet accumulation incurring much earlier than the Pleistocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The build-up of marine-based ice sheets in these parts is critical to the cooling of the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, considered as a pre-condition for the modern ocean “conveyor belt” circulation. However, proximal sedimentary records that can shed light on the timing and climate background of early Greenland Ice Sheet evolution are lacking. In 2008 a series of shallow cores were drilled by the Kanumas consortium on the NorthEast Greenland shelf and Cenozoic sediments were recovered at several sites. Here we present litho- and palynostratigraphic information, along with new cosmogenic isotope results, of a 110 m long sediment core (Kanumas 13). The core study, supported by regional seismic data, suggests that ice streams may have been active on the North-East Greenland margin since middle-late Miocene. Geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility data indicate that an abrupt change in sediment source occurred at 50.8 m. The shift in provenance is accompanied by a transition to more open marine conditions. The implications for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Artic climate development will be addressed in the presentation.

How to cite: Knutz, P., Nielsen, T., Sliwinska, K., Fyhn, M., Hopper, J., Jennings, A., Bierman, P., Christ, A., Corbett, L., and Hidy, A.: A rare record of late Neogene glaciation from the north east Greenland margin, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12021,, 2022.

The Eocene bryozoans reveal a spectacular diversification in the stratigraphical column of the LMF, Seymour Island, showing a great variation in the colony growth-forms and taxonomy enhanced by a great radiation of a new taxa (Hara 2001).

The very base of the sandy, transgressive series in the lowermost part of the LMF (Telm1) includes loosely encrusting (membraniporiform), and unizooidal, flexible articulated or rooted colonies (catenicelliform), which are either taxonomically and morphologically different from the overlying fauna. At present such bryozoans are widely distributed in the tropical-warm temperate latitudes particularly deposited in the shallow-water settings (Hara 2015).

The massive, hemisperical cerioporine cyclostomes, reminiscent of the Cretaceous in the Northern Hemisphere and differently-shaped multilamellar cheilostomes represented by numerous new taxa are dominant biota in the lower part of Telm1-2 (Hara 2001, 2002).

The free-living lunulitiform, disc-shaped colonies, which occur in the middle part of the LMF (Telm4-Telm5), are characteristic for the warm, shallow-self environment with a temperature range of 10 to 29°C. Environmentally, lunulitids are absent when the bottom sediments is lower than 10-12°C. At present they inhabit the circumpolar to warm-temperate waters (Hara et al. 2018). They have bimineralic skeletons, with the traces of aragonite, which is indicative for the temperate shelf environment, sandy and often shifting substrate.

The bryozoans from the upper part of the LMF (Telm6-Telm7) are scarce, either represented by in-situ lepraliomorph biostrome layer up to 5 cm thick or poorly-preserved sole fragments of the bryozoans associated with penguins and fish remains.

Changes in the biotic composition of the diversified bryozoan biota of the late early Eocene-late Eocene in the stratigraphical column of the LMF mark a distinct environmental and climatic events, referred to EECO, MECO, and EOT for the upper part of this formation.

The isotopic δ18O analyses of the bryozoan skeletons from the lower part of the La Meseta Fm. show the temperature range from 13.4°C to 14.6°C (according to the equation given by Anderson & Arthur 1983; unpublished Hara 2021; what is consistent with isotopic data of other marine macrofaunal fossil records (see Ivany et al. 2008).

Anderson T.F., and Arthur M.A.1983. Stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon and their application to sedimentologic and paleoenvironmental problems. SEPM Short Course, 10: 1-151.

Hara U. 2001. Bryozoans from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Palaeontologia Polonica 60: 33-155.

Hara U., 2002. A new macroporid bryozoan from Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, Polish Polar Research, 23: 213-225.

Hara U. 2015. Bryozoan internal moulds from the La Meseta Formation (Eocene) of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Polish Polar Research, 36: 25-49.

Hara U., Mors T., Hagstrom J. & Reguero M. A., 2018. Eocene bryozoans assemblages from the La Meseta Formation of Seymour Island. Geological Quarterly, 62: 705-728.  

Ivany L.C., Lohmann K. C. Hasiuk F., Blake D.B., Glass A., Aronson R.B., & Moody R.M. 2008. Eocene climate record of the high southern latitude continental shelf: Seymour Island, Antarctica. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 120: 659-678.


How to cite: Hara, U.: Evolution of the Antarctic bryozoan biota as a response to environmental and climatic changes: (Eocene, La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12131,, 2022.

EGU22-12387 | Presentations | SSP2.4

Late Holocene permafrost development triggers hydrological and geochemical changes in subarctic peatlands (Abisko, 68ºN) 

Olga Margalef, Oriol Grau, Hans Joosten, Aaron Pérez Haase, Sergi Pla Rabes, Pere Roc Fernández, Santiago Giralt, Marc Sánchez, Ramon Pérez Obiol, Joan Manuel Soriano, Albert Pèlachs, Sara Campderrós, Cristina Fernández Alarcón, and Josep Peñuelas

Palsa mires are a common feature in the Subarctic zone of discontinuous permafrost. In these peatlands, the patchy distribution of frozen soil constrains relief, water regime and vegetation distribution. Because they lie at the edge of permafrost distribution, palsa mires are very sensitive to climate changes and become extremely valuable high-latitude terrestrial records. However, both (1) their origin, including their rapid development towards ombrotrophy because of uplift by ice accretion and (2) the irreversible geochemical effects of collapse and permafrost thaw make them challenging environmental archives. Understanding the Late Holocene evolution of these systems becomes a key framework to decipher potential consequences of the permafrost disappearance observed during the last decades. A 120 cm peat record was recovered on the Storflaket Palsa plateau (Abisko, Sweden, 68ºN) on June 2018.  This register contains more than 9000 years of paleoenvironmental information and was entirely made of peat, with two centimetric layers of volcanic ash interbedded at 74-77 and 46-47cm depth. A multidisciplinary approach using chemical (stoichiometry, stable isotopy and elemental composition) and biological proxies (macrofossil and pollen determination) was used to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the site. Bottom most layers (50-120cm) were characterized by peat made of different types of brown mosses and abundant aquatic fauna indicating that the area was covered by a high and stable water table that promoted organic matter accumulation in a percolation mire system. The very high accumulation rates and the extremely good preservation of macrofossil remains suggest a permafrost free area around 8000 cal yr BP. From 50 to 9 cm the peat is made of highly degraded brown moss, with increasing degradation towards the top. Chemical and macrofossil analyses indicate a strong oxidation processes due to peat exposition. The top layer (9 to 0 cm) is characterized by dry palsa peat and depicts very low accumulation rates, suggesting that this record is capturing the uplift movement of the peat mound by ice accretion and a shift from a minerotrophic and waterlogged mire system towards the development of a palsa plateau. Chemical and biological signals allow us to date the age of permafrost establishment later than 3000 cal. yr BP. The deposition of ash layers is linked to sudden inputs of phosphorus and metals leading to stoichiometric changes in peat composition.

How to cite: Margalef, O., Grau, O., Joosten, H., Pérez Haase, A., Pla Rabes, S., Fernández, P. R., Giralt, S., Sánchez, M., Pérez Obiol, R., Soriano, J. M., Pèlachs, A., Campderrós, S., Fernández Alarcón, C., and Peñuelas, J.: Late Holocene permafrost development triggers hydrological and geochemical changes in subarctic peatlands (Abisko, 68ºN), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12387,, 2022.

EGU22-12640 | Presentations | SSP2.4

An organic geochemical reconstruction of North American temperature gradients over the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary 

Lauren O'Connor, Rhodri Jerrett, Greg Price, Bart van Dongen, Emily Crampton-Flood, and Sabine Lengger

Latitudinal temperature gradients are a critical component of the climate system and control the transport of heat and moisture. However, this process is poorly understood during past intervals of extreme greenhouse climate, in particular owing to models suggesting that gradients must be much steeper than proxy data imply. Palaeotemperature records Late Cretaceous–Early Paleogene can provide insight into how the global climate system operates under greenhouse conditions.

Much of our understanding of palaeotemperatures and gradients therein during this interval comes from marine sea-surface temperature proxy data, with very few terrestrial records. These palaeoclimate reconstructions are hampered by poor temporal resolution, difficulties in correlating between sites, and limited spatial coverage.

Lipids from fossil peats across North America provide an opportunity to investigate terrestrial palaeotemperatures across the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary and how these differ across a range of latitudes. Here we present a mean annual air temperature record spanning this interval from the Canadian High Arctic (~75°N palaeolatitude). Our data show that temperatures ranged from 0–18°C, compared with 13–27°C at contemporaneous peat-accumulating sites in Saskatchewan (~60°N palaeolatitude). These data indicate a temperature gradient of approximately 10°C. These values are similar to those modelled for the latest Cretaceous, and the latitudinal difference is comparable to the modern gradient across North America (UCAR), albeit ~20°C warmer.

Our study demonstrates that although the Arctic experienced high terrestrial temperatures, the K-Pg interval saw a well-defined latitudinal temperature gradient. Further, our reconstructions fill an existing gap in the terrestrial record and highlight the value of fossil peats in palaeoclimate studies.

How to cite: O'Connor, L., Jerrett, R., Price, G., van Dongen, B., Crampton-Flood, E., and Lengger, S.: An organic geochemical reconstruction of North American temperature gradients over the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12640,, 2022.

EGU22-530 | Presentations | CR4.1

The last deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet (21,000 - 8,000 yr BP): a sensitivity study to PMIP3/PMIP4 coupled atmosphere-ocean models outputs 

Victor van Aalderen, Sylvie Charbit, Christophe Dumas, and Aurélien Quiquet

Rapid sea-level rise, due to melting and destabilization of present-day ice sheets will likely have important consequences on human societies. Observations provide evidences of increased mass loss in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) over the recent decades, partly due to ocean warming. Despite improvements in both climate and ice-sheet models, there are still significant uncertainties about the future of West Antarctica, due, in part, to our misunderstanding of the process responsible for the marine ice sheet evolution. Paleoclimate studies provide important information on ice-sheet collapse in a warming world.

Our study is based on the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS) complex, including the British Island Ice Sheet (BIIS), the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) and the Barents Kara Ice Sheet (BKIS). Because large parts of both the BKIS and the WAIS are marine-based, the BKIS at the LGM can be considered as a potential analogue to the WAIS.

To improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the EIS retreat, we performed transient simulations of the last EIS deglaciation (21 000 – 8 000 yr BP) with the GRISLI ice sheet model forced by 5 PMIP3/PMIP4 models, and two transients GCM models, TRACE21K and iLOVECLIM. Our main goal is to investigate the sensitivity of the EIS grounding line retreat to climate forcing, sea-level rise and glaciological processes with a focus on the BKIS evolution during the deglaciation and the behaviour of the large Bjornoyrenna ice stream.  

How to cite: van Aalderen, V., Charbit, S., Dumas, C., and Quiquet, A.: The last deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet (21,000 - 8,000 yr BP): a sensitivity study to PMIP3/PMIP4 coupled atmosphere-ocean models outputs, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-530,, 2022.

EGU22-1501 | Presentations | CR4.1

Hysteresis and orbital pacing of the early Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet 

Jonas Van Breedam, Philippe Huybrechts, and Michel Crucifix

The early Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet has grown non-linearly to a continental-scale ice sheet close to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary when environmental conditions were favourable. These favourable conditions included the movement of the continent towards the South Pole, the thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent and declining atmospheric CO2 concentrations.  Once the threshold for ice sheet growth was reached, a series of positive feedbacks led to the formation of a continental-scale ice sheet.

The thresholds for growth and decline of a continental scale ice sheet are different. The ice sheet state is dependent on the initial conditions, an effect called hysteresis. Here we present the hysteresis behaviour of the early Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet for different bedrock elevation reconstructions. The ice sheet-climate coupler CLISEMv1.0 is used and captures both the height-mass balance and the ice-albedo feedback accurately. Additionally, the influence of the different orbital parameters on the threshold to glaciation and deglaciation is investigated in detail. It appears that the long-term eccentricity cycle has a significant influence on the ice sheet growth and decline and is able to pace the ice sheet evolution for constant CO2 concentration close to the glaciation threshold.

How to cite: Van Breedam, J., Huybrechts, P., and Crucifix, M.: Hysteresis and orbital pacing of the early Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1501,, 2022.

EGU22-1635 | Presentations | CR4.1

The role of the Laurentide ice-sheet topography in the Alpine hydro-climate at glacial times 

Patricio Velasquez, Martina Messmer, and Christoph C. Raible

In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of the glacial Alpine hydro-climate to changes of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS). Bridging the scale gap by using a chain of global and regional climate models, we perform sensitivity simulations of up to 2 km horizontal resolution over the Alps for the Last Glacial Maximum and the Marine Isotope Stage 4. In winter, we find wetter conditions in the southern part of the Alps during glacial conditions compared to present day, to which dynamical processes, i.e.  changes in the wind speed and direction, substantially contribute. During summer, we find the expected drier conditions in most of the Alpine region during glacial conditions, as thermodynamics suggests drier conditions under lower temperatures. The sensitivity simulations of the LIS changes show that an increase of the ice-sheet thickness leads to a significant intensification of glacial Alpine hydro-climate conditions, which is mainly explained by dynamical processes. The findings demonstrate that the Laurentide ice-sheet topography plays an important role in regulating the Alpine hydro-climate and thus permits a better understanding of the precipitation patterns in the complex Alpine terrain at glacial times.

How to cite: Velasquez, P., Messmer, M., and Raible, C. C.: The role of the Laurentide ice-sheet topography in the Alpine hydro-climate at glacial times, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1635,, 2022.

EGU22-1774 | Presentations | CR4.1

Reconstruction of the Patagonian Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum using numerical modelling and geological constraints 

Franco Retamal-Ramírez, Andrés Castillo, Jorge Bernales, and Irina Rogozhina

During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 23,000 to 19,000 years ago), the Patagonian Ice Sheet (PIS) covered the central chain of the Andes between ~ 38 °S to 55 °S. From limited paleoclimatic evidence, especially that derived from glacial landforms, it becomes clear that maximum ice sheet expansions in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres were not synchronized. However, large uncertainties still exist in the timing of the onset of regional deglaciation as well as its major drivers. Ice sheet modelling combined with glacial geochronology and paleoclimate reconstructions can provide important information on the PIS geometry, ice volume and its contribution to the sea level low during the LGM. It can also help to test different paleoclimate scenarios and identify climate models that capture regional climate responses to the global change in a realistic manner.

Here we present an ensemble of numerical simulations of the PIS during the LGM with an aim to constrain the most likely LGM climate conditions that can explain the reconstructed geometry of the PIS in a satisfactory manner. The PIS model is driven by the climate forcing that fuse near-surface air temperatures and precipitation rates from the ERA5 reanalysis with the paleoclimate model outputs from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP2 and PMIP3) and the in-house Community Earth System Model (CESM) experiments. Our analysis suggests a strong dependence of the PIS geometry on the near-surface air temperature forcing. All the ensemble experiments designed with PMIP and in-house CESM experiments fail to reproduce the ice sheet extent between 38 and 42 °S. The most realistic performance for the LGM ice sheet extents south of 38 °S has been derived using those climate models that have a higher spatial resolution. The latter helps these models to capture regional climate conditions in a more physically consistent manner. It should be kept in mind that this analysis is based on the evaluation of the modelled ice sheet extents only, as geological evidence on the former ice sheet thickness is still scarce. Nevertheless, it can be shown that a realistic ice sheet geometry during the LGM is consistent with a regional decrease in air temperature of 7 to 12 °C and an increase in precipitation of 400 to 1500 mm/year along the western sectors of the PIS.

How to cite: Retamal-Ramírez, F., Castillo, A., Bernales, J., and Rogozhina, I.: Reconstruction of the Patagonian Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum using numerical modelling and geological constraints, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1774,, 2022.

EGU22-2516 | Presentations | CR4.1

Coupled Greenland ice sheet-climate simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) 

Heiko Goelzer, Petra Langebroek, and Andreas Born

Long-term simulations of ice sheets and their interaction with the climate system require the application of Earth system models with interactive ice sheet components. To this end we present the first experiments performed with the CMIP6-type Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) including a Greenland ice sheet model component. We present our coupling and modelling strategy, which builds on earlier work with the Community Earth System Model and show first results for two NorESM2 version with different resolution of the atmospheric component. We have performed and analyzed pre-industrial spinup and control experiments, historical runs and future projections under scenario ssp585, following the ISMIP6 protocol.

How to cite: Goelzer, H., Langebroek, P., and Born, A.: Coupled Greenland ice sheet-climate simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2516,, 2022.

EGU22-2829 | Presentations | CR4.1

Net effect of ice-sheet-atmosphere interactions reduces simulated transient Miocene Antarctic ice sheet variability 

Lennert B. Stap, Constantijn J. Berends, Meike D.W. Scherrenberg, Roderik S.W. van de Wal, and Edward G.W. Gasson

Benthic δ18O levels vary strongly during the warmer-than-modern early- and mid-Miocene (23 to 14 Myr ago), suggesting a dynamic Antarctic ice sheet (AIS). So far, however, realistic simulations of the Miocene AIS have been limited to equilibrium states under different CO2 levels and orbital settings. Earlier transient simulations lacked ice-sheet-atmosphere interactions, and used a present-day rather than Miocene Antarctic bedrock topography. Here, we quantify the effect of ice-sheet-atmosphere interactions, running IMAU-ICE using climate forcing from Miocene simulations by the general circulation model GENESIS. Utilising a recently developed matrix interpolation method enables us to interpolate the climate forcing based on CO2 levels (between 280 and 840 ppm) as well as varying ice sheet configurations (between no ice and a large East Antarctic ice sheet). We furthermore implement recent reconstructions of Miocene Antarctic bedrock topography. We find that the positive albedo-temperature feedback, partly compensated by a negative feedback between ice volume and precipitation, increases hysteresis in the relation between CO2 and ice volume. Together, these ice-sheet-atmosphere interactions decrease the amplitude of Miocene AIS variability in idealised transient simulations. Forced by quasi-orbital 40-kyr forcing CO2 cycles, the ice volume variability reduces by 21% when ice-sheet-atmosphere interactions are included, compared to when forcing variability is only based on CO2 changes. Thereby, these interactions also diminish the contribution of AIS variability to benthic δ18O fluctuations. Evolving bedrock topography during the early- and mid-Miocene reduces ice volume variability by 10%, under equal 40-kyr cycles of atmosphere and ocean forcing. 

How to cite: Stap, L. B., Berends, C. J., Scherrenberg, M. D. W., van de Wal, R. S. W., and Gasson, E. G. W.: Net effect of ice-sheet-atmosphere interactions reduces simulated transient Miocene Antarctic ice sheet variability, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2829,, 2022.

EGU22-2831 | Presentations | CR4.1

Reconstructing Cordilleran Ice Sheet stability in western Canada during the Last Deglaciation 

Christopher Darvill, Brian Menounos, Brent Goehring, and Alia Lesnek

The Cordilleran Ice Sheet in western North America was of comparable size and topographic setting to the modern Greenland Ice Sheet and exhibited similar dynamics. Ice streams channelled rapid flow and the western ice margin terminated in both marine and terrestrial environments. Reconstructing Cordilleran Ice Sheet retreat can therefore provide a helpful analogue for how the Greenland Ice Sheet may respond to changing climate and underlying topography in the future. Moreover, deglaciation in this region controlled routes available for early human migration into the Americas. Here, we present cosmogenic 10Be nuclide exposure ages from glacial erratics and bedrock on the west coast of British Columbia (53.4°N, 129.8°W) that add to existing chronologies along ~600 km of coastal North America. Collectively, these data show deglaciation back to the present coastline by ca. 18–16 ka. Retreat then slowed and ice seemingly stabilised close to the present coastline for several thousand years until ca. 14–13 ka. Ice may still have been lost during this period of relative stability, but through vertical thinning rather than lateral retreat. We attribute initial retreat to destabilisation and grounding line retreat resulting from rising sea level and/or ocean warming in the northern Pacific. Subsequent stability at the present coast was likely due to the transition from marine to terrestrial margins despite increasing temperatures that may have driven ice sheet thinning. Hence, we show the importance of understanding both climatic and non-climatic drivers of ice sheet change through time. We also show that hundreds of kilometres of coastline were free of ice prior to an important period of early human migration into the Americas.

How to cite: Darvill, C., Menounos, B., Goehring, B., and Lesnek, A.: Reconstructing Cordilleran Ice Sheet stability in western Canada during the Last Deglaciation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2831,, 2022.

EGU22-3080 | Presentations | CR4.1

Could the Laurentide Ice Sheet have exhibited internal oscillations? 

Daniel Moreno, Jorge Alvarez-Solas, Marisa Montoya, Javier Blasco, and Alexander Robinson

It is well known that the climate during the last glacial period was far from stable. The presence of layers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) in deep-sea sediments has been interpreted to reflect quasi-periodic episodes of massive iceberg calving from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). Several mechanisms have been proposed, yet the ultimate cause of these events is still under debate. From the point of view of ice dynamics, one of the main sources of uncertainty and diversity in model response is the choice of the basal friction law. Therefore, it is essential to determine the impact of basal friction on ice-stream surges. Here we study the effect of a wide range of basal friction parameters and laws for the LIS under constant LGM boundary conditions by running ensembles of simulations using a higher-order ice-sheet model. The potential feedbacks among till mechanics, basal hydrology and thermodynamics are also considered to shed light on the behaviour of the ice flow. Our aim is to determine under what conditions, if any, physically-based internal oscillations are possible in the LIS. Increasing our understanding of both basal friction laws and basal hydrology will improve not only reconstructions of paleo ice dynamics but also help to constrain the potential future evolution of current ice sheets.

How to cite: Moreno, D., Alvarez-Solas, J., Montoya, M., Blasco, J., and Robinson, A.: Could the Laurentide Ice Sheet have exhibited internal oscillations?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3080,, 2022.

EGU22-3293 | Presentations | CR4.1

Simulations of North American ice sheet at the LGM with FAMOUS-BISICLES and its sensitivity to global temperatures 

Sam Sherriff-Tadano, Niall Gandy, Ruza Ivanovic, Lauren Gregoire, Charlotte Lang, Jonathan Gregory, and Robin Smith

Understanding the response of ice sheets to global temperature changes is a critical issue for the climate community. To accurately simulate future ice sheet evolution, we need to know the strength of feedbacks between the climate and ice sheets. Testing the ability of coupled climate-ice sheet models to simulate past ice sheet extent can provide a way to evaluate the models and ground truth projections. One example is the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), when huge ice sheets covered the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North America. Here, we performed simulations of the North American ice sheet and climate of the LGM with a recently updated ice sheet-atmosphere coupled model Famous-Ice (Smith et al. 2021, Gregory et al. 2020). The model consists of a low-resolution atmospheric general circulation model Famous (Smith et al. 2008) and an ice sheet model BISICLES (Cornford et al. 2013). It calculates the surface mass balance over ice sheets based on an energy budget scheme and incorporates an updated albedo scheme, which accounts for albedo changes associated with modifications in surface air temperature, grain size and density of the snow. The atmospheric model reproduces the surface mass balance of the modern Greenland ice sheet reasonably well (Smith et al. 2021). Simulations of projections of future sea-level rise (Gregory et al. 2020) and the LGM (Gandy et al. in prep) have also been performed with Famous-Ice using a different ice sheet model GLIMMER.

We present simulations of the LGM with interactive ice sheets in North America and Greenland using FAMOUS-BISICLES. Uncertain input parameters controlling the surface temperatures and ice albedo are varied in our simulations. The global temperature is specified by applying fixed sea surface temperature in the atmospheric model producing a global cooling that ranges from -3K to -6.5K in the simulations. The bare ice minimum albedo is varied from 0.2 to 0.7, which corresponds to the range in PMIP3 models. Our results show a better representation of North American ice sheet when forced with a colder LGM (-6.5K) and high bare ice albedo. We will further discuss potential roles of model biases and compare our results with simulations performed with FAMOUS-GLIMMER (Gandy et al. in prep).

How to cite: Sherriff-Tadano, S., Gandy, N., Ivanovic, R., Gregoire, L., Lang, C., Gregory, J., and Smith, R.: Simulations of North American ice sheet at the LGM with FAMOUS-BISICLES and its sensitivity to global temperatures, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3293,, 2022.

EGU22-4740 | Presentations | CR4.1

Antarctic-climate multi-millenia coupled simulations under different pCO2 levels with the iLOVECLIM-GRISLI model 

Gaelle Leloup, Aurélien Quiquet, Christophe Dumas, Didier Roche, and Didier Paillard

Ice sheets and the rest of the climate system interact in various ways, notably via the atmosphere, ocean and solid earth. Atmospheric and oceanic temperatures and circulations affect the evolution of ice-sheets, and conversely ice-sheet evolution impacts the rest of the climate system via various processes, including albedo modification, topographic changes and freshwater flux release into the ocean. To correctly model the evolution of the climate system and sea level rise, these feedbacks therefore need to be considered.

Under the highest emission scenario, temperature is expected to reach levels comparable to the Eocene epoch in a few centuries [1]. At this time, there was no widespread glaciation in Antarctica.

The work of Garbe et al [2] has shown that the Antarctic ice sheet has a hysteresis behavior and gave different temperature thresholds leading to committed Antarctic mass loss. For example, between 6 and 9 degrees of warming (a global temperature increase comparable to the one expected in 2300 for the most emissive scenario), the loss of 70% of the present-day ice volume is triggered. However, the modelling study used idealized perturbations of the climate fields based solely on global mean temperature. More specifically, global mean temperature is translated into local changes of ocean and surface air temperature and increased until a complete deglaciation of the Antarctic ice-sheet is reached. In addition the study did not take into account the ice sheet change feedback on the climate system.

In our work we intend to go a step further by taking into account both the influence of atmosphere and oceanic temperature and circulations on the ice sheet in a physical way, as well as the influence of the ice sheet on the rest of the climate system.

To do so, we use the coupled ocean-atmosphere-vegetation intermediate complexity model iLOVECLIM [3], fully coupled to the GRISLI ice-sheet model for Antarctica [4, 5].

We perform several multi-millenia equilibria simulations for different pCO2 levels, thanks to the relative rapidity of both the iLOVECLIM and GRISLI models. These simulations lead to different atmospheric and oceanic temperatures and Antarctic mass loss. 

These coupled simulations allow us to explore the impact of the ice sheet feedback on the climate and to investigate the differences compared to cases where these feedbacks are not included. The influence of the model parameters linked to the ice sheet coupling is also studied.


References :

[1] Westerhold et al 2020, “An astronomically dated record of Earth’s climate and its predictability over the last 66 million years”

[2] Garbe et al 2020 “The hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet”

[3] Quiquet et al 2018, “Online dynamical downscaling of temperature and precipitation within the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.1)”

[4] Quiquet et al 2018, “The GRISLI ice sheet model (version 2.0): calibration and validation for multi-millennial changes of the Antarctic ice sheet”

[5] Quiquet et al 2021 “Climate and ice sheet evolutions from the last glacial maximum to the pre-industrial period with an ice-sheet–climate coupled model”

How to cite: Leloup, G., Quiquet, A., Dumas, C., Roche, D., and Paillard, D.: Antarctic-climate multi-millenia coupled simulations under different pCO2 levels with the iLOVECLIM-GRISLI model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4740,, 2022.

EGU22-5016 | Presentations | CR4.1

Antarctic sub-shelf melt during the present and the last interglacial and its impact on ice sheet dynamics 

Maxence Menthon, Pepijn Bakker, Aurélien Quiquet, and Didier Roche

The response of ice sheets to climate changes can be diverse and complex. The amplitude, speed and irreversibility of the melting of the ice sheets due to current anthropogenic emissions remain largely uncertain after 2100. Being able to reconstruct the evolution of the ice sheets during the past climate changes is a possible approach to constrain their future evolution in time scales further than the end of the century.

Here we aim to reconstruct the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Last Interglacial (LIG, ~ 130 to 115 kyr BP). The LIG was 0.5 to 1˚C warmer than the pre-industrial era with a sea-level between 6 to 9 m above present level. In other words, the Antarctic ice sheet during the LIG can be considered as an analogue to its future evolution. Moreover, it is the interglacial on which we have the most geological records to compare with simulation results.

Knowing that the oceanic forcing is the main driver of the Antarctic ice sheet retreat, we introduced the sub-shelf melt module PICO (Reese et al. 2018) in the ice sheet model (GRISLI, Quiquet et al. 2018) in order to physically compute the melt. We use outputs from the Earth Sytem Model (iLOVECLIM, Roche et al. 2014) to force idealized experiments. Several time periods will be covered: present-day, last glacial maximum and LIG. This work is a first step towards a fully coupled iLOVECLIM-GRISLI-PICO simulation to explicitly take into account the ice sheet climate - interactions in a physical way in simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet during the LIG and future centuries.

How to cite: Menthon, M., Bakker, P., Quiquet, A., and Roche, D.: Antarctic sub-shelf melt during the present and the last interglacial and its impact on ice sheet dynamics, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5016,, 2022.

EGU22-5261 | Presentations | CR4.1

Simulating the Last Glacial Cycle using a Glacial Index and Climate Matrix Method 

Meike D.W. Scherrenberg, Roderik S.W. van de Wal, Constantijn J. Berends, and Lennert B. Stap

For simulating ice sheet – climate interactions on multi-millennial time-scales, a set-up that uses a two-way coupled Earth System Model would be ideal. However, running these simulations over multi-millennium time-scales while including ice sheets, is not feasible. Alternatively, ice sheet models can be forced by interpolating climate time-slices, allowing for a transient forcing to an ice sheet model at limited computational costs.

Here, we compare two methods that interpolate between climate time-slices to create a transient forcing for ice sheet simulations. Firstly, we use a glacial index method, in which the climate is linearly interpolated between time-slices based only on prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Secondly, we use a climate matrix method in which the interpolation is not only dependent on the prescribed CO2 concentration, but also on internally generated thickness, volume and albedo. As a result, the climate matrix method captures ice-sheet atmosphere feedbacks.

Here we present ice sheet simulations of the Last Glacial Cycle using IMAU-ICE forced with Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Pre-Industrial time-slices. For the time-slices we use the output from nine Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase III (PMIP3) GCMs. Our aim is to compare and to evaluate the differences in ice sheet evolution and LGM volume and extent resulting from the different PMIP3 models and the interpolation method used for transient simulations.

For most PMIP3 forcings, both the North-American and Eurasian ice sheets build up quicker in the climate matrix method compared to the glacial index method, which is in better agreement with paleo-observations. This is mostly a result from precipitation differences between the two interpolation methods: In the climate matrix method the interpolation of precipitation is dependent on internally generated ice thickness instead of only CO2. Therefore, when ice thickness is smaller than LGM, the interpolation tends to shift more towards pre-industrial in the climate matrix method compared to the glacial index method. As precipitation is larger during pre-industrial compared to LGM in most Eurasian and North-American regions, this leads to a larger precipitation in the climate matrix method, increasing ice sheet volume. Similarly, the climate matrix method results into warmer temperatures in ice-free areas as the interpolation is dependent on both CO2, albedo and insolation. However, for most PMIP3 models, this ice sheet-temperature feedback does not cancel-out the increased precipitation in the climate matrix method.

How to cite: Scherrenberg, M. D. W., van de Wal, R. S. W., Berends, C. J., and Stap, L. B.: Simulating the Last Glacial Cycle using a Glacial Index and Climate Matrix Method, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5261,, 2022.

EGU22-5599 | Presentations | CR4.1

Impact of cumulative anthropogenic carbon emissions, emission duration, and negative emission scenarios on melting of the Greenland ice sheet 

Dennis Höning, Reinhard Calov, Stefanie Talento, Matteo Willeit, and Andrey Ganopolski

Budgets of remaining anthropogenic carbon emissions have been estimated to keep global warming below a limit (IPCC report 2021). A main impact of global warming is the rise of the sea level caused by melting of the Greenland ice sheet. However, the response of the Greenland ice sheet to temperature rise is strongly nonlinear. Melting depends on the time interval at which the ice sheet is exposed to high temperatures and on its rate of change, and a short time interval of high emission would therefore not necessarily result in the same sea level rise as long intervals of low emission. In order to make adequate predictions about sea level rise associated with melting of the Greenland ice sheet at specific times in the future, it is therefore crucial to explore the impact of cumulative emissions in combination with the emission duration.

We simulate Earth’s evolution for the next 20,000 years using CLIMBER-X, a fully coupled Earth System model of intermediate complexity, including modules for atmosphere, ocean, land surface, sea ice and the interactive 3-D polythermal ice sheet model SICOPOLIS, which is applied to the Greenland ice sheet at a spatial resolution of 16 km. In a first step, we explore equilibrium states of the volume of the Greenland ice sheet using constant partial pressures of atmospheric CO2. We also explore tipping points related to these states, i.e. unstable states of the ice volume where smaller values would lead to further melting until the associated stable state is reached. Next, we investigate the critical cumulative carbon emission to cross these tipping points. Finally, we assess the influence of the emission duration on crossing the tipping points and on the convergence rate towards the associated equilibrium states. We also investigate to what extent future negative emissions could limit sea level rise.

Our results show how high carbon emission rates, even throughout a short time interval, cause the Greenland ice sheet system to rapidly approach equilibrium states of smaller ice volume. This convergence cannot completely be offset by future negative emissions. In contrast, a quick decrease of global emissions, even if in combination with an extended time period of small net emissions in the future, would substantially delay sea level rise and could even prevent the system from crossing the tipping points.

How to cite: Höning, D., Calov, R., Talento, S., Willeit, M., and Ganopolski, A.: Impact of cumulative anthropogenic carbon emissions, emission duration, and negative emission scenarios on melting of the Greenland ice sheet, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5599,, 2022.

EGU22-6242 | Presentations | CR4.1

Sensitivity of Heinrich-type ice sheet surges and their implications for the last deglaciation 

Clemens Schannwell, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Florian Ziemen, and Marie-Luise Kapsch

Transitions from a stable, periodically oscillating ice-sheet system to a perpetual ice stream has potentially far-reaching implications for the timing of the onset of the last deglaciation as well as for climate transitions such as the Younger Dryas. These periodical ice-sheet oscillations known as Heinrich-type ice sheet surges are among the most dominant signals of glacial climate variability. They are quasi-periodic events during which large amounts of ice are discharged from ice sheets into the ocean. The addition of freshwater strongly affects the ocean circulation, resulting in a pronounced cooling in the North Atlantic region. In addition, changes in the ice sheet geometry also have significant effects on the climate. Here, we use a coupled ice sheet-solid earth model that is driven with forcing from a comprehensive Earth System Model that includes interactive ice sheets to identify key drivers controlling the surge cycle length of Heinrich-type ice-sheet surges from two main outlet glaciers of the Laurentide ice sheet. Our simulations show different surge initiation behaviour for the land-terminating Mackenzie ice stream and marine-terminating Hudson ice stream. For both ice streams, the surface mass balance has the largest effect on the surge cycle length. Ice surface temperature and geothermal heat flux also influence the surge cycle length, but to a lesser degree. Ocean forcing and different frequencies of the same forcing have a negligible effect on the surge cycle length. The simulations also highlight that a certain parameter space exists under which stable surge oscillations can be maintained. This parameter range is much narrower for the Mackenzie ice stream than for the Hudson ice stream. Leaving the stable regime results in a dynamical switch that turns the system from periodically oscillating system into a perpetual ice stream system. This transition can lead to a volume loss of up to 36% for the respective ice stream drainage basin under otherwise glacial climate conditions.

How to cite: Schannwell, C., Mikolajewicz, U., Ziemen, F., and Kapsch, M.-L.: Sensitivity of Heinrich-type ice sheet surges and their implications for the last deglaciation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6242,, 2022.

EGU22-6247 | Presentations | CR4.1

The influence of proglacial lakes on climate and surface mass balance of retreating ice sheets – An Investigation of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets,13 ka BP 

Lianne Sijbrandij, Paul Gierz, Sebastian Hinck, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, Gerrit Lohmann, and Lu Niu

This study investigates how large proglacial lakes affected regional climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of retreating ice sheets during the last deglaciation. For this purpose we have modified the atmosphere model ECHAM6. The approach is here to limit the surface temperature of proglacial lakes to values below 4°C, while other lakes in ECHAM6 can freely evolve according to a mixed layer scheme.

As a first application we investigate the impact of proglacial lakes during the Allerød interstadial at 13 ka (ka is thousand years before present) with three atmosphere stand-alone experiments:

(i) with 13ka land surface boundary conditions (GLAC1d, Ivanovic et al., 2016) and a modern lake configuration

(ii) same as (i) but with additional lakes around the North American and Fennoscandian Ice Sheets

(iii) same as (ii) but the additional lakes are treated according to our proglacial lake approach.

Over the ocean we use boundary conditions taken from a 15ka coupled climate simulation. These three simulations were evaluated with respect to the regional climate response and the SMB was calculated using the diurnal Energy Balance Model (dEBM, Krebs-Kanzow et al., 2021). Preliminary results are indicating an overall positive effect of regular lakes, and in particular proglacial lakes, on the SMB of the great ice sheets over Northern America and Scandinavia during the Allerød interstadial.



Ivanovic, R. F., Gregoire, L. J., Kageyama, M., Roche, D. M., Valdes, P. J., Burke, A., Drummond, R., Peltier, W. R., and Tarasov, L.: Transient climate simulations of the deglaciation 21–9 thousand years before present (version 1) – PMIP4 Core experiment design and boundary conditions, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2563–2587,, 2016.

Krebs-Kanzow, U., Gierz, P., Rodehacke, C. B., Xu, S., Yang, H., and Lohmann, G., 2021: The diurnal Energy Balance Model (dEBM): a convenient surface mass balance solution for ice sheets in Earth system modeling, The Cryosphere, 15, 2295–2313,

How to cite: Sijbrandij, L., Gierz, P., Hinck, S., Krebs-Kanzow, U., Lohmann, G., and Niu, L.: The influence of proglacial lakes on climate and surface mass balance of retreating ice sheets – An Investigation of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets,13 ka BP, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6247,, 2022.

EGU22-6624 | Presentations | CR4.1

A transient glacial cycle simulation with the coupled CESM1.2-PSUIM climate-ice-sheet model 

Kyung-Sook Yun and Axel Timmermann

Here we present first results from a series of transient glacial cycle simulations which were conducted with the Community Earth System model (CESM, version 1.2) coupled to the Penn State University ice sheet-ice-shelf Model (PSUIM). The coupling is achieved by applying CESM-simulated surface air temperature, precipitation, surface shortwave radiation and subsurface-ocean temperatures to the PSUIM. CESM is forced in return by PSUIM-simulated ice sheet cover, topography, and freshwater fluxes. The coupled model, which uses a ~ 4 degree horizontal resolution in the atmosphere and ocean and ~ 40 km for the ice-sheets in both hemispheres, includes representations of the lapse-rate, desert-elevation and albedo-dust feedbacks. The coupled model, which uses moderate bias corrections for temperature and precipitation, reproduces the ice sheet evolution over the last glacial cycle in reasonable agreement with paleo-climate data. In this presentation we will further highlight the sensitivity of simulated glacial variability to changes in key surface parameters as well to the individual orbital and greenhouse gas forcings. Our results reveal that only the combination of orbital and CO2 forcings can generate the full glacial/interglacial amplitude. Single forcings are insufficient to generate glacial variability, which emphasizes the need to understand the mechanisms that led to the orbital pace-making of CO2 during the Pleistocene.

How to cite: Yun, K.-S. and Timmermann, A.: A transient glacial cycle simulation with the coupled CESM1.2-PSUIM climate-ice-sheet model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6624,, 2022.

EGU22-7293 | Presentations | CR4.1

Antarctic Ice Sheet  simulations using Yelmo ice sheet model and a series of IPSL CM5A2 climate simulations between 17 Ma and 14 Ma 

Diane Segalla, Javier Blasco Navarro, Gilles Ramstein, Frédéric Fluteau, Alexander James Robinson, Jorge Alvarez-Solas, Marisa Luisa Montoya Redondo, and Florence Colleoni

The mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO, ~17-15 Ma) and the mid-Miocene Climatic Transition (MCT, ~15-13.5 Ma),  represents a period of high policy relevance because of the high atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. Exploring this period offers the opportunity to investigate the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) response to CO2 forcings that are close to those projected in the medium to worse case emission scenarios. A set of equilibrium simulations with the 3D ice sheet model Yelmo allows us to study the envelope of the AIS volume and extent during the MMCO (17 Ma) and MCT (14 Ma). These simulations are forced off-line with equilibrium climatic conditions  obtained with the Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM) IPSL CM5A2.  Two values of the reconstructed atmospheric pCO2, i.e. 420 ppm and 700 ppm, are prescribed, for an orbital configuration corresponding to minimum and maximum insolation values at 75°S each (9 climate simulations in total). Thanks to these different configurations we simulated the AIS dynamics. Results show that at 17 Ma, warmer conditions produce an AIS that is drastically reduced with respect to today’s configuration. At 14 Ma, cooler climatic conditions allow the AIS to expand again. This is in agreement with the geological records of the AIS dynamics that reveal a substantial expansion of the ice sheet at the end of the MCT. Since Antarctica is the only ice sheet at this time, our set of climate and ice-sheet simulations capture the envelope of ice volume and extent of the AIS. Moreover, such studies contribute to a better understanding of the 𝛿18O records and of the evolution of deep ocean temperature versus ice volume and global mean sea level change.

How to cite: Segalla, D., Blasco Navarro, J., Ramstein, G., Fluteau, F., Robinson, A. J., Alvarez-Solas, J., Montoya Redondo, M. L., and Colleoni, F.: Antarctic Ice Sheet  simulations using Yelmo ice sheet model and a series of IPSL CM5A2 climate simulations between 17 Ma and 14 Ma, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7293,, 2022.

EGU22-7563 | Presentations | CR4.1

Sea ice dynamics in the Labrador Sea across Heinrich events during MIS 3 

Henrieka Detlef, Mads Mørk Jensen, Marianne Glasius, and Christof Pearce

The most prominent events of ice-sheet collapse in the recent geological past are so-called Heinrich events observed during millennial-scale climate oscillations of the last glacial period. They are characterized by the dispersal of ice(berg) rafted debris and freshwater across the North Atlantic, with the Hudson Strait suggested as the predominant source region. One potential mechanism triggering iceberg release invokes cryosphere-ocean interactions, where subsurface warming destabilizes the Laurentide ice sheet. In this scenario, the build-up of a subsurface heat reservoir is caused by an extensive sea ice cover in the Labrador Sea in combination with a reduced overturning circulation in the North Atlantic, preventing the release and downward mixing of heat in the water column.

Here we present high-resolution reconstructions of sea ice dynamics in the outer Labrador Sea between 30 ka and 60 ka at IODP Site U1302/03, located on Orphan Knoll. Sea ice reconstructions are based on a suite of sympagic and pelagic biomarkers, including highly branched isoprenoids and sterols. These results suggest a transition from reduced/seasonal to extended/perennial sea ice conditions preceding the onset of iceberg rafting associated with Heinrich event 3, 4, 5, and 5a by a couple of hundred to a thousand years. Our preliminary results thus support the importance of sea ice in the Labrador Sea for triggering Heinrich events. Future results from the same core will have to confirm the timing and extent of subsurface warming and ocean circulation dynamics.  

How to cite: Detlef, H., Mørk Jensen, M., Glasius, M., and Pearce, C.: Sea ice dynamics in the Labrador Sea across Heinrich events during MIS 3, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7563,, 2022.

EGU22-7694 | Presentations | CR4.1

Sensitivity of the Eurasian Ice Sheet: Improved model-data comparison routines 

Rosie Archer, Jeremy Ely, Timothy Heaton, and Chris Clark

At the Last Glacial Maximum, the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS) was one of the largest ice masses, reaching an area of 5.5 Mkm2 at its maximum. Recent advances in numerical ice sheet modelling hold significant promise for improving our understanding of ice sheet dynamics, but remain limited by the significant uncertainty as to the appropriate values for the various model input parameters. The EIS left behind a rich library of observational evidence, in the form of glacial landforms and sediments. Integrating this evidence with numerical ice sheet models allows inference on these key model parameters, leading to a better understanding of the behaviour of the EIS and a framework for advancing numerical ice sheet models. To quantify how successfully a particular model run matches the available data, model-data comparison tools are required. Here, we model the EIS using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM), a hybrid shallow-ice shallow shelf ice sheet model. We perform sensitivity analyses to reveal the most important parameters controlling the evolution of our modelled EIS. Results from this analysis allow us to reduce the parameter space required for a future ensemble experiment. This ensemble experiment will utilise novel model-data comparison tools which compare ice-free timings to geochronological evidence and modelled flow directions with drumlins. Unlike previous model-data comparison routines, our tools provide a more nuanced, and probabilistic, assessment of fit than a simple pass-fail. This offers significant benefits for future parameter selection.

How to cite: Archer, R., Ely, J., Heaton, T., and Clark, C.: Sensitivity of the Eurasian Ice Sheet: Improved model-data comparison routines, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7694,, 2022.

EGU22-9235 | Presentations | CR4.1

Tipping Points in the Amundsen Sea Sector, a comparison between 2D and 3D ice-sheet models 

Cyrille Mosbeux, Olivier Gagliardini, Nicolas Jourdain, Benoit Urruty, Mondher Chekki, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, and Gael Durand

Ice mass loss from Antarctic Ice Sheet is increasing, accelerating its contribution to global sea level rise. Interactions between the ice shelves (the floating portions of the ice sheet that buttress the grounded ice) and the ocean are key processes in this mass loss. The most rapid recent observed mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet is in the Amundsen Sea, where buttressing is declining as small ice shelves are being thinned rapidly by melting driven by inflows of warm Circumpolar Deep Water, leading to important grounding line retreats. Recent research indicates that ice sheets, especially the parts that rest on a bed below sea level such as most of the Amundsen sector, are particularly prone to an unstable and irreversible retreat that might lead to an important and fast global sea level rise.

As part of the European Horizon 2020 research project TiPACCs that assesses the possibility of near-future irreversible changes, so-called tipping points, in the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic Ice Sheet, we conduct numerical simulations perturbating the current conditions of the ice-ocean system in the Amundsen Sea Sector. More particularly, we use the Stokes flow formulation of the open-source ice flow model Elmer/Ice, forced with melt parametrization under the ice shelves to determine the effect of ocean warming on the ice-sheet evolution –eventually looking for the existence of future tipping points in the region. Since 3D-Stokes models can be numerically expensive, using the same Elmer/Ice framework (datasets, ocean and climate forcing), we compare our results to the more efficient but sometimes less accurate 2D-shallow–shelf(y)-Approximation (SSA). This methodology allows us to entangle the differences between the two models and better constrain the uncertainty linked to TiPACCs pan-Antarctic simulations based on the SSA.

How to cite: Mosbeux, C., Gagliardini, O., Jourdain, N., Urruty, B., Chekki, M., Gillet-Chaulet, F., and Durand, G.: Tipping Points in the Amundsen Sea Sector, a comparison between 2D and 3D ice-sheet models, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9235,, 2022.

EGU22-9983 | Presentations | CR4.1

Antarctica’s x-factor: How does Antarctic precipitation change with temperature? 

Lena Nicola, Prof. Dirk Notz, and Prof. Ricarda Winkelmann

Snowfall is by far the most important positive contributor to the overall mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, potentially buffering temperature-induced dynamical ice loss in a warming climate. Previous studies have proposed that Antarctic snowfall will increase along the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, describing the saturation water vapour pressure as a function of temperature (7% change for 1°C of warming). Due to cold temperatures and continentality in the interior, this general, first-order explanation may not hold true for snowfall changes across the ice sheet. In this study, we investigate how this first-order approximation can be modified to more reliably represent snowfall changes in a warming climate for simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

To characterise the present-day precipitation pattern, we use reanalysis data and make use of state-of-the-art model data from the CMIP6 modelling project as well as regional model data. We analyse how the sensitivity of Antarctic precipitation to temperature changes is represented in models and how it potentially changes in the future. We use least-squares linear regression to determine the sensitivity factor, Antarctica’s x-factor, that is used in ice-sheet models to scale precipitation. 

With our statistical analyses, we show that sensitivities of column-integrated water vapour, precipitation, snowfall, net precipitation, and surface mass balance to temperature changes are fairly similar under present-day conditions; implying that the exponential relationship of saturation water vapour pressure to temperature could generally lead to additional mass gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with warming. However, we find that the relationship of Antarctic precipitation to temperatures across the ice sheet is not constant, but decreases with ongoing warming. Taking these changes into account could give a more reliable estimate of future precipitation changes than existing approaches. We demonstrate that a linear approximation of the exponential relationship between Antarctic precipitation and temperature becomes more and more imprecise in a warming climate, both for computing the sensitivity factor and to scale Antarctic precipitation in models.

We propose a new way to extract the sensitivity factor of Antarctic precipitation to temperature which takes regional variations and the temperature dependence into account. The temperature dependence becomes more important the higher the warming becomes. Considering local warming rates, we show the necessity of introducing a temperature-dependent scaling factor in ice-sheet models, especially for high-end or long-term sea-level projections.

How to cite: Nicola, L., Notz, P. D., and Winkelmann, P. R.: Antarctica’s x-factor: How does Antarctic precipitation change with temperature?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9983,, 2022.

EGU22-10008 | Presentations | CR4.1

The evolution of future Antarctic surface melt using PISM-dEBM-simple 

Julius Garbe, Maria Zeitz, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, and Ricarda Winkelmann

With a volume of 58 m sea-level equivalent, the Antarctic Ice Sheet represents the largest potential source of future sea-level rise under global warming. While the ice sheet gains mass through snowfall at the surface, it loses mass through dynamic discharge and iceberg calving into the ocean, as well as by melting at the surface and underneath its floating ice shelves.

Already today, Antarctica is contributing to sea-level rise. So far, this contribution has been comparatively modest, but is expected to increase in the future. Most of the current mass losses are concentrated in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, mainly caused by sub-shelf melting and ice discharge. Because air temperatures are low and thus surface melt rates are small, any significant melting at the surface is restricted to the low-elevation coastal zones. At the same time, most of the mass loss is offset by snowfall, which is projected to further increase in a warming atmosphere.

As warming progresses over the coming centuries, the question arises as to how long the mass losses on the one side will be compensated by the gains on the other. In 21st-century projections, increasing surface mass balance is outweighing increased discharge even under strong warming scenarios. However, in long-term (multi-century to millennium scale) warming simulations the positive surface mass balance trend shows a peak and subsequent reversal. Owing to positive feedbacks, like the surface-elevation or the ice-albedo feedback, this effect can be enhanced once a surface lowering is triggered or the surface reflectivity is lowered by initial melt.

Here, we implement a simplified version of the diurnal Energy Balance Model (dEBM-simple) as a surface module in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM), which extends the conventional positive-degree-day (PDD) approach to include the influence of solar radiation and parameterizes the ice albedo as a function of melting, implicitly accounting for the ice-albedo feedback.

Using a model sensitivity ensemble, we analyze the range of possible surface mass balance evolutions over the 21st century as well as in long-term simulations based on extended end-of-century climatological conditions with the coupled model. The comparison with the PDD approach hints to a strong overestimation of surface melt rates of the latter, even under present day conditions. The dEBM-simple further allows us to disentangle the respective contributions of temperature- and insolation-driven surface melt to future sea level rise.

How to cite: Garbe, J., Zeitz, M., Krebs-Kanzow, U., and Winkelmann, R.: The evolution of future Antarctic surface melt using PISM-dEBM-simple, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10008,, 2022.

EGU22-10758 | Presentations | CR4.1

Kill dates from re-exposed black mosses constrain past glacier advances along the western Antarctic Peninsula 

Dulcinea Groff, David Beilman, Zicheng Yu, and Derek Ford

Glaciers retreating along the western Antarctic Peninsula (AP) reveal previously entombed soils and plants. We collected black (dead) mosses to constrain the timing of late Holocene glacier advances at four sites along the AP from ice-free terrain and from rapidly retreating ice margins. The results of radiocarbon measurements from 39 black mosses were used to infer glacier activity over the past 1500 years along with established criteria for sample collection. The criteria ensure robust estimates of when plant growth ended, referred to hereafter as “kill date”. From these kill dates we report distinct periods of ice advance during ca. 1300, 800, and 200 calibrated calendar years before 1950 (cal yr BP) and the first estimates of glacier rate of advance around 800 cal yr BP of 2.0 and 0.3 meters per year from Gamage and Bonaparte Points (southern Anvers Island), respectively. Kill dates reveal a narrow range of ages within a region, suggesting that multiple glacier termini advanced together, and that the rate of local advances may have varied by an order of magnitude. Other evidence for glacier advances in the northern AP ca. 200 cal yr BP and ages of penguin remains (a proxy for penguin colony abandonment) centered ca. 800 cal yr BP from several sites across the AP coincide with our kill dates. Combining several lines of terrestrial evidence for past glacier activity is critical to improving our understanding of the regional synchroneity of glacial dynamics and cryosphere-biosphere connections.

How to cite: Groff, D., Beilman, D., Yu, Z., and Ford, D.: Kill dates from re-exposed black mosses constrain past glacier advances along the western Antarctic Peninsula, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10758,, 2022.

A leading contender for explaining the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) from small 40 kyr glaciations to large, abruptly terminating 100 kyr ones is a shift to high friction bed under the Northern hemisphere ice sheets – the North American ice sheet in particular. The regolith hypothesis posits that this occurred with the removal of deformable regolith – laying bare higher-friction bedrock under ice sheet core domains. Is the regolith hypothesis consistent with the physics of glacial removal of mechanically weak surface material?                


Self-consistency of the regolith hypothesis has not been tested for a realistic, 3D North American ice sheet, capturing the transition from soft to hard bedded and 40 to 100 kyr cycles, fully considering basal processes and sediment production. To test self-consistency, we simulate the pace and distribution of regolith removal in a numerical ice sheet model incorporating the relevant glacial processes and their uncertainties. Specifically, the Glacial Systems Model includes: fully coupled sediment production and transport, subglacial hydrology, glacial isostatic adjustment, 3D thermomechanically coupled hybrid ice physics, and internal climate solution from a 2D non-linear energy balance model. The sediment model produces sediment via quarrying and abrasion while transporting material englacially and subglacially. The subglacial hydrology model employs a linked-cavity system with a flux based switch to tunnel drainage, giving dynamic effective pressure needed for realistic sediment and sliding processes. Deflection and rebound of the Earth's surface are calculated for a range of solid Earth visco-elastic rheologies.  The coupled system is driven only by prescribed atmospheric CO2 and orbitally derived insolation.


Starting from a range of initial sediment distributions and simulating an ensemble of model parameter values, we model the rate and spatial distribution of regolith dispersal and compare this against the inferred range of Pliocene regolith thickness, the present day sediment distribution, and the timing of the MPT. A first order fully coupled representation of ice, climate and sediment interactions captures the transition within parametric and observational uncertainty. The system gives the shift from 40 to 100 kyr glacial cycles while broadly reproducing the present day sediment distribution, inferred early Pleistocene extent, LGM ice volume and deglacial margin locations.

How to cite: Drew, M. and Tarasov, L.: A test of the Regolith Hypothesis with fully coupled glacial sediment and ice sheet modelling, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10821,, 2022.

EGU22-11345 | Presentations | CR4.1

New ice margin chronology for the last deglaciation of the North American Ice Sheet Complex 

Martin Margold, April S. Dalton, Jakob Heyman, Helen E. Dulfer, and Sophie L. Norris

The North American Ice Sheet Complex (comprising the Laurentide, Cordilleran and Innuitian ice sheets) was the largest ice mass in the Northern Hemisphere that grew towards and waned after the Last Glacial Maximum. The existing ice margin chronology available for the North American Ice Sheet Complex is based on radiocarbon data only and does not reflect other geochronometric information constraining the last deglaciation, such as cosmogenic exposure- or optically stimulated luminescence ages. Here we present a series of newly produced ice margin isochrones from 25 ka to present, in a time step of 500 years. For each isochron, we draw maximum, best estimate, and minimum ice margin position in an attempt to capture the existing uncertainty. The ice margin isochrones are based on (i) an up-to-date dataset of radiocarbon ages (~5000), (ii) 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic nuclide data that directly date ~80 ice-marginal features over North America, (iii) ~350 optically stimulated luminescence ages dating the deposition of an aeolian cover immediately post-deglaciation, (iv) the ice-sheet scale glacial geomorphology record. Our effort brings the information on the last North American Ice Sheet Complex deglaciation on par with that for the Eurasian Ice Sheets and should serve the broad community of Quaternary research from archaeology to numerical ice sheet modelling.

How to cite: Margold, M., Dalton, A. S., Heyman, J., Dulfer, H. E., and Norris, S. L.: New ice margin chronology for the last deglaciation of the North American Ice Sheet Complex, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11345,, 2022.

EGU22-11407 | Presentations | CR4.1

Effects of extreme melt events on the Greenland ice sheet 

Johanna Beckmann and Ricarda Winkelmann

Over the past decade, Greenland has experienced several extreme melt events, the most pronounced ones in the years 2010, 2012 and 2019. With progressing climate change, such extreme melt events can be expected to occur more frequently and potentially become more severe. So far, however, projections of ice loss and sea-level change from Greenland typically rely on scenarios that only take gradual changes in the climate into account. 
Here we investigate the effect of extreme melt events on the ice dynamics and overall mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). While the extremes generally lead to thinning of the ice sheet by enhanced melting, they partly also decrease the overall ice surface velocities due to a reduced driving gradient. In our simulations, we find that taking extreme events into account leads to additional ice loss compared to the baseline scenario without extremes. We find that the sea-level contribution from Greenland could increase by up to 45 cm by the year 2300 if severe extreme events are considered in future projections. We conclude that both changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events need to be taken into account when projecting the future sea-level contribution from the Greenland Ice Sheet.

How to cite: Beckmann, J. and Winkelmann, R.: Effects of extreme melt events on the Greenland ice sheet, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11407,, 2022.

EGU22-11503 | Presentations | CR4.1

De-tuning a coupled Climate Ice Sheet Model to simulate the North American Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum 

Lauren Gregoire, Niall Gandy, Lachlan Astfalck, Ruza Ivanovic, Sam Sherriff-Tadano, Robin Smith, and Daniel Williamson

Coupled climate-ice sheet models are crucial to evaluating climate-ice feedbacks' role in future ice sheet evolution. Such models are calibrated to reproduce modern-day ice sheets, but current observations alone are insufficient to constrain the strength of climate-ice feedbacks. The extent of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the last glacial maximum, ~20,000 years ago, is well known and could provide a benchmark for calibrating coupled climate-ice sheet models. We test this with the FAMOUS-ice coupled Climate-Ice Sheet model (Smith et al., 2020), a fast GCM coupled to the Glimmer ice sheet model. We ran Last Glacial Maximum simulations using FAMOUS-ice with interactive North American Ice Sheet, following the PMIP4 protocol (Kageyama et al., 2018). We find that the standard model setup, calibrated to produce a good present-day Greenland (Smith et al., 2020), produced a collapsed North American ice sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum. We ran ensembles of hundreds of simulations to explore the influence of uncertain ice sheet, albedo, atmospheric, and oceanic parameters on the ice sheet extent. The North American continent deglaciated rapidly in most of our simulations, leaving only a handful of useful simulations out of 280. We thus developed a method to efficiently identify regions of the parameter space that can produce a reasonable ice-sheet extent. This involved emulating the equilibrium ice volume and area as a function of the surface mass balance at the start of our simulations. We then ran three waves of short simulations for 20-50 years to identify parameter values and surface mass balance conditions potentially suitable to grow a realistic ice sheet. This enabled us to find ~160 simulations with good ice extent.

Through analysis of these simulations, we find that albedo parameters determine the majority of uncertainty when simulating the Last Glacial Maximum North American Ice Sheets. The differences in cloud cover over the ablation zones of the North American and Greenland ice sheet explains why the ice sheets have different sensitivities to surface mass balance parameters. Based on our work, we propose that the Last Glacial Maximum can provide an “out-of-sample” target to avoid over calibrating coupled climate-ice sheet models to the present day.


Kageyama, M. et al. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments. Geosci. Model Dev. 10, 4035–4055 (2017).

Smith, R. S., George, S., and Gregory, J. M.: FAMOUS version xotzt (FAMOUS-ice): a general circulation model (GCM) capable of energy- and water-conserving coupling to an ice sheet model, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5769–5787,, 2021.


How to cite: Gregoire, L., Gandy, N., Astfalck, L., Ivanovic, R., Sherriff-Tadano, S., Smith, R., and Williamson, D.: De-tuning a coupled Climate Ice Sheet Model to simulate the North American Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11503,, 2022.

EGU22-11929 | Presentations | CR4.1

Evaluation of a coupled climate ice sheet model over the Greenland ice sheet and sensitivity to atmospheric, snow and ice sheet parameters 

Charlotte Lang, Victoria Lee, Sam Sherriff-Tadano, Niall Gandy, Jonathan Gregory, Ruza Ivanovic, Lauren Gregoire, and Robin S. Smith

As part of a project working to improve coupled climate-ice sheet modelling of the response of ice sheets to changes in climate across different periods since the Last Glacial Maximum, we present simulations of the modern Greenland climate and ice sheet using the FAMOUS-BISICLES model.

FAMOUS-BISICLES, a variant of FAMOUS-ice (Smith et al., 2021a), is a low resolution (7.5°X5°) global climate model that is two-way coupled to a higher resolution (minimum grid spacing of 1.2 km) adaptive mesh ice sheet model, BISICLES. It uses a system of elevation classes to downscale the lower resolution atmospheric variables onto the ice sheet grid and calculates surface mass balance using a multilayer snow model. FAMOUS-ice is computationally affordable enough to simulate the millennial evolution of the coupled climate-ice sheet system, and has been shown to simulate Greenland well in previous work using the Glimmer shallow ice model (Gregory et al., 2020).

The ice sheet volume and area are sensitive to a number of parametrisations related to atmospheric and snow surface processes and ice sheet dynamics. Based on that, we designed a perturbed parameters ensemble using a Latin Hypercube sampling technique and ran simulations with climate forcings appropriate for the late 20th century. The ice sheet area and volume are most correlated to parameters that set the snow/firn albedo while the relationship is less simple for parameters related to clouds and precipitation.

We compare FAMOUS-ice SMB and coupled behaviour against the more sophisticated, higher resolution, CMIP6-class UKESM-ice coupled climate ice sheet model for a late 20th century simulation as well as an abrupt 4XCO2 experiment.

Our simulations produce a large range of climate and ice sheet behaviours, including a stable control state for the modern Greenland, and we have been able to highlight the sensitivity of the system to other sets of parameters and future changes in climate.

How to cite: Lang, C., Lee, V., Sherriff-Tadano, S., Gandy, N., Gregory, J., Ivanovic, R., Gregoire, L., and Smith, R. S.: Evaluation of a coupled climate ice sheet model over the Greenland ice sheet and sensitivity to atmospheric, snow and ice sheet parameters, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11929,, 2022.

EGU22-12018 | Presentations | CR4.1

Uncertainties of Surface Mass Balance in Greenland for the mid-Holocene as derived from CMIP6/PMIP4 simulations. 

Rebekka Neugebauer, Christian B. Rodehacke, Gerrit Lohmann, and Uta Krebs-Kanzow

The temporal evolution of Greenland’s surface mass balance (SMB) exerts an essential control on its volume, geometry, and sea-level contribution. Surface mass balance simulations based on future climate projections reveal considerable uncertainties. Here, we investigate Greenland’s SMB during past climate periods and assess the uncertainties due to model dependent climate forcing. Specifically we analyse the SMB of the pre-industrial climate and the mid-Holocene warm period.


We study the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet with respect to uncertainties due to model dependent climate forcing. For this purpose, we create an ensemble based on the output of climate models of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the Paleomodel Intercomparison Project (PMIP4) (Brierley et al., 2020). This ensemble is used to simulate the SMB with the diurnal energy balance model (dEBM) (Krebs-Kanzow et al, 2021). As part of the analysis, we inspect anomalies and inter-model deviations of the mid-Holocene climate forcing, and evaluate the spread of spatial patterns of SMB anomalies in CMIP6/PMIP4. Our results indicate that the model-dependent climate forcing adds considerable uncertainty to SMB estimates over Greenland during the Holocene.



Brierley, C. M., Zhao, A., Harrison, S. P., Braconnot, P., Williams, C. J. R., Thornalley, D. J. R., Shi, X., Peterschmitt, J.-Y., Ohgaito, R., Kaufman, D. S., Kageyama, M., Hargreaves, J. C., Erb, M. P., Emile-Geay, J., D'Agostino, R., Chandan, D., Carré, M., Bartlein, P. J., Zheng, W., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Q., Yang, H., Volodin, E. M., Tomas, R. A., Routson, C., Peltier, W. R., Otto-Bliesner, B., Morozova, P. A., McKay, N. P., Lohmann, G., Legrande, A. N., Guo, C., Cao, J., Brady, E., Annan, J. D., and Abe-Ouchi, A., 2020: Large-scale features and evaluation of the PMIP4-CMIP6 midHolocene simulations, Clim. Past, 16, 1847–1872, doi:10.5194/cp-16-1847-2020, 2020. 

Krebs-Kanzow, U., Gierz, P., Rodehacke, C. B., Xu, S., Yang, H., and Lohmann, G., 2021: The diurnal Energy Balance Model (dEBM): a convenient surface mass balance solution for ice sheets in Earth system modeling, The Cryosphere, 15, 2295–2313,

How to cite: Neugebauer, R., Rodehacke, C. B., Lohmann, G., and Krebs-Kanzow, U.: Uncertainties of Surface Mass Balance in Greenland for the mid-Holocene as derived from CMIP6/PMIP4 simulations., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12018,, 2022.

EGU22-12930 | Presentations | CR4.1

Dynamic glaciers improve LGM simulation in High Mountain Asia 

Qiang Wei, Yonggang Liu, and Yongyun Hu

Glaciers on Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas were much more extensive during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) when global mean temperature was 5-8 K lower than today. Accurately reconstructing glaciers on and around Tibetan Plateau remains vital towards understanding glaciers’ sensitivity against climate change, and vice versa.

Previous simulations on glaciers in High Mountain Asia during LGM are usually forced with prescribed climatology without considering the bi-directional feedbacks. We instead coupled a climate model (CESM) to an ice-sheet model (ISSM). Our results show that the interactions between HMA glaciers and climate was significant. Uncoupled runs that ignore such interaction yielded glacial coverage roughly 10% more than coupled runs. Regional glacial features change considerably in coupled simulation. Glaciers on the mid-west Tibetan Plateau decreased while those in Qilian Mountains, Tianshan Mountains and Pamir Plateau saw pronounced increase. Compared with uncoupled simulations, our coupled results is in better agreement with reconstructions of LGM glaciers.







KEY WORDS: Glacier; Ice-sheet; Tibetan Plateau; High Mountain Asia; Numerical simulation; Climate modelling


How to cite: Wei, Q., Liu, Y., and Hu, Y.: Dynamic glaciers improve LGM simulation in High Mountain Asia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12930,, 2022.

EGU22-13289 | Presentations | CR4.1

Effects of future freshwater forcing from ice sheet mass loss in a high-resolution climate model 

André Jüling, Dewi Le Bars, Erwin Lambert, Marion Devilliers, and Sybren Drijfhout

The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are losing mass to the ocean. This additional freshwater flux to the ocean is only expected to increase in the future, but it is usually not included in current climate model simulations as ice sheets are not modelled interactively. However, this freshwater flux will influence multiple aspects of the climate response. We develop a plausible, future freshwater forcing scenarios for both ice sheets and use a high-resolution, eddy-permitting version of EC-Earth3 to simulate the response to a high emission scenario. We investigate the effect of this additional freshwater on sea ice, ocean circulation, surface temperatures, and sea level by comparing the simulations to the HighResMIP EC-Earth3 simulations without ice sheet mass loss.

How to cite: Jüling, A., Le Bars, D., Lambert, E., Devilliers, M., and Drijfhout, S.: Effects of future freshwater forcing from ice sheet mass loss in a high-resolution climate model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13289,, 2022.

The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) significantly affects the heat budget and associated climate over the Indian Ocean region. The reduction in the WPWP is manifested in the form of reduced Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and may be well represented by the census count and oxygen isotope records of planktic foraminifera.

The present study is an attempt to reconstruct the episodes of reduction in the WPWP during the Quaternary, on the basis of extremely low relative abundance of planktic foraminifera Pulleniatina (Pu.) obliquiloculata from the ODP Hole 769B in the Sulu Sea. This species is a thermocline dweller, that thrives in tropical to warm subtropical latitudes. It is considered to be an indicator of Kuroshio Current and shows a direct correlation with the expansion of the WPWP.

In the ODP Hole 769B, Pu. obliquiloculata shows a low relative abundance during the Quaternary, except a few instances of significant increase, so much so that it comprises almost 50% of the entire faunal assemblage. The rising trend is characteristic of high SST and an expansion in WPWP. We have identified seven distinct events of sharp decline in the relative abundance of Pu. obliquiloculata (<5%) and named these events as Pulleniatina Minimum Events (PMEs). These events are: PME-1- (2.21-2.08 Ma); PME- 2 (1.8-1.36 Ma); PME- 3 (0.9-0.87 Ma); PME-4 (0.79-0.65 Ma), PME-5 (0.48-0.44 Ma), PME-6 (0.16-0.13 Ma) and PME-7 (0.04-0.02 Ma) in descending stratigraphic order. We interpret these events to mark be the result of the reduction in the WPWP. We have also found the occurrence of temperate fauna during the stratigraphically younger last five PMEs (PME7 to PME3), which indicate reduction in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) probably caused by glaciations. The glacial events probably enhanced the Oyashio Current, which caused the influx of cool fertile waters in the Sulu Sea. The evidence of the increased fertility in the Sulu Sea is marked by the increased relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, a fertility indicator species, during the PME7 to PME3. The PME2 and PME1 show no presence of temperate fauna. These events of reduction in the WPWP may be attributed to the development of El Niño like conditions.

The PMEs were also correlated with the five PL events recorded by Sinha et al (2006) from ODP Hole 763A in the Eastern Indian Ocean. These PL events: PL-1- (2.22 Ma); PL-2 (1.83 Ma); PL-3 (0.68 Ma), PL-4 (0.45 Ma) and PL-5 (0.04 Ma), represented reduced strength of ITF either due to the glacial events (PL-3 to PL-5 events) or due to ENSO induced changes (reduction) in the WPWP (PL-1-and PL-2 events).

The PMEs show striking correlation with the PL events, giving testimony to episodes of reduction in the WPWP during Quaternary.



How to cite: Singh, V., Singh, A., and Sinha, D.: Pulleniatina Minimum Events from the Sulu Sea as evidence for Reduction in the Western Pacific Warm Pool during Quaternary, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12,, 2022.

The Permian time is characterized by various geodynamic and biotic events. The rifting of Gondwana and the formation of the super-continent Pangea are the most important events. The cessation of major Gondwana rifting and thermal cooling has subsequently resulted in the development of marine Tethyan settings at the margin of the northwestern Indian Plate. Based on detailed outcrop-based lithostratigraphical investigations, a total of three formations have been distinguished. The presence of diagnostic foraminifer’s species able to assign Wordian, Capitanian-Wuchiapingian, and Late Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian ages to these rock units respectively. The detailed biostratigraphic and sedimentological analyses of the upper Permian units of northern Pakistan divulged three phases of the carbonate platform development. Initially, the early Permian pure clastic Gondwana deposits were replaced by the Tethyan setting during the middle Permian (Wordian) time whereby the wave-dominated delta was established as the sea-level rises. However, such deltaic deposits were gradually evolved into a pure carbonate system during the Capitanian time in response to gradual transgression. The Capitanian and Wuchiapingian times show the development of a diverse shallow carbonate platform along the northwestern Indian Plate. The late Permian global regression has significantly disturbed the carbonate factory and subsequently developed river-dominated deltaic deposits of carbonate and clastic mixed system. Such a mixed system was again evolved in a carbonate platform during the Early Triassic.

How to cite: Wadood, B., Li, H., and Khan, S.: Evolution of the Permian carbonate platform on Gondwana shelf, Pakistan: sedimentological and biostratigraphic approach, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-227,, 2022.

EGU22-465 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Evidence of high rainfall in India during Deccan eruptions based on triple oxygen isotope composition of petrified woods 

Sangbaran Ghoshmaulik, Sourendra Kumar Bhattacharya, Manoshi Hazra, Pallab Roy, Mahasin Ali Khan, Mao-Chang Liang, and Anindya Sarkar

The intertrappean sediments and the bole beds of the Deccan volcanic province hold clues to the climatic condition in India during the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition. Earlier isotopic studies of the bulk clays from the ‘bole beds’ showed that the rainwater composition was lighter (δ18O  -8‰) relative to the present-day (δ18O ~ -5‰). This was ascribed to an increase in the rainfall (amount effect). However, later reconstruction of the mean annual precipitation (MAP) from the intertrappean paleosol carbonates suggested that the amount was no different than the modern-day precipitation. One possible reason for this disagreement can be due to the low preservation potential of proxies used in these studies. The present study was carried out by analysing authigenic silica which is resistant to post-depositional modifications. Such silica deposits are abundant throughout the Deccan intertrappean sediments occurring as cherts, chertified limestone and silicified fossils. They form during the interaction of silica-rich water with the existing sediments or fossils, the silica being derived by leaching of the volcanic ash by surface run-off and/or from siliceous hydrothermal waters. Silicified woods were analyzed for their triple oxygen isotope ratios (expressed as δ17O and δ18O) to determine the silicification temperature and the isotopic composition of the silicifying fluid. The distribution of the obtained silicification temperature and water composition of diverse samples indicates a widely variable silicification environment. The silicification took place at temperatures from 25°C  (near surface temperature)  to 90°C (at relatively shallower levels of 50-100 m). In addition, the δ18O (VSMOW) values of silicification fluid varied from -14‰ to near 0‰. The geological, floral and faunal evidence suggest deposition of these woods in a continental fluvio-lacustrine environment. Isotope modelling of the data suggest a two-component fluid mixing between hydrothermal water and a lake water. Assuming this fluid to be derived from a mixture of meteoric water and volcanic hydrothermal water, the δ18O value of the local meteoric water is estimated to be -14‰ to -12‰. These values are lower by about 9‰ to 7‰ compared to today (mean annual δ18O over central India being ~-5‰). We ascribe this to an increase in the mean annual rainfall by about 400 mm. It is possible that the late cretaceous precipitation increased due to the warming caused by a high CO2 environment.

How to cite: Ghoshmaulik, S., Bhattacharya, S. K., Hazra, M., Roy, P., Khan, M. A., Liang, M.-C., and Sarkar, A.: Evidence of high rainfall in India during Deccan eruptions based on triple oxygen isotope composition of petrified woods, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-465,, 2022.

During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97-5.33 Ma), evaporite deposition throughout the Mediterranean basin records a
series of dramatic environmental changes as flow through the Strait of Gibraltar was restricted. In the first stage of
evaporite deposition, cycles of gypsum appear in shallow basins on the margins of the Mediterranean. The complex
environmental history giving rise to these cycles has been investigated for decades but remains somewhat mysterious.
Notably, whether the evaporites are connected to significant changes in Mediterranean sea level is an open question.
In one proposed model, competition between tectonic uplift and erosion at the Strait of Gibraltar gives rise to self-sustaining
sea-level oscillations, or limit cycles, which trigger evaporite deposition. I show that limit cycles
are not a robust result of the proposed model and discuss how any oscillations produced by this model depend on
an unrealistic formulation of a key model equation. A more realistic formulation would render sea-level limit cycles improbable,
if not impossible, in the proposed model.

How to cite: Baum, M.: Limit Cycle Model of Messinian Salinity Crisis Incorrect and Irreproducible, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1042,, 2022.

EGU22-2053 | Presentations | SSP2.1


Francesco Pilade, Francesco Dela Pierre, Marcello Natalicchio, Iuliana Vasiliev, Daniel Birgel, Alan Mancini, Francesca Lozar, and Rocco Gennari

The Miocene-Pliocene transition (MPT) in the Mediterranean area represents one of the unresolved geological riddles of the Neogene. The MPT coincides with the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC, Hsü et al., 1977), an event that led to the deposition of massive volume of evaporite on the Mediterranean seafloor. The final stage of the MSC started at ~5.53 Ma and its uppermost part corresponds to the “Lago-Mare” phase, characterized by the occurrence of brackish shallow water ostracods of Parathethyan origin. The “Lago-Mare” deposits are sharply overlain by Zanclean (earliest Pliocene) marine sediments, astrocronologically dated to start at 5.33 Ma (Van Couvering et al. 2000).

The interpretation of this abrupt environmental change is strongly debated. One scenario assumes a catastrophic flooding of all Mediterranean sub-basins that were previously disconnected from the Atlantic Ocean and from each other (Caruso et al., 2020). An alternative scenario invokes a gradual refilling started during the Lago-Mare phase and continued during the basal Pliocene (early Zanclean) (Roveri et al., 2008; Stoica et al., 2016; Merzeraud et al., 2018).

To investigate the paleoenvironmental conditions across the MP transition, we investigated six sections along a west to east transect of the Apennines foredeep, using an integrated approach that merge the traditional stratigraphic, palaeontological, geochemical, and petrographic data with the analysis of molecular fossils (lipid biomarkers).

The top of the Messinian sediments is marked by a bioturbated dark layer in all six studied sections. The presence of glauconite at the top of the dark layer and of firm ground burrows of the Glossifungites icnofacies filled with Zanclean sediments suggest starved sedimentary conditions and the partial lithification of the sea floor during the earliest Zanclean. In addition, the benthic foraminifera indicate an increase of bottom oxygen content and a deepening of the basin across the MPT. Preliminary results of over 40 samples indicate excellently preserved molecular fossils both in the “Lago-Mare” sediments and in the Zanclean open marine deposits with a predominance of terrestrially-derived higher-plants long chain n-alkanes (LCalk) and of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of both marine and terrestrial origin. Future analyses will focus on the compound specific carbon and hydrogen isotopes of LCalk to further constrain precipitation and vegetation changes associated to the MPT. Changes in seawater (via isoprenoidal GDGTs) and land temperatures (via branched GDGTs) will be also reconstructed.

How to cite: Pilade, F., Dela Pierre, F., Natalicchio, M., Vasiliev, I., Birgel, D., Mancini, A., Lozar, F., and Gennari, R.: THE END OF THE MESSINIAN SALINITY CRISIS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN: new data on the Miocene-Pliocene boundary., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2053,, 2022.

EGU22-2200 | Presentations | SSP2.1

A new Berriasian to Coniacian composite carbon isotope record from the Boreal Realm 

André Bornemann, Jochen Erbacher, Martin Blumenberg, and Silke Voigt

High-amplitude shifts in sedimentary δ13C characterize the Cretaceous system and have been proven to be of great use for supraregional chemostratigraphic correlation. Here we present an upper Berriasian to lower Coniacian (c. 142 – 88 Ma) composite carbon isotope record based on 14 drill cores, two outcrops and almost 5000 samples. The total record comprises a composite thickness of about 1500 m. All cores and successions are located in the larger Hanover area, which represents the depocenter of the North German Lower Saxony Basin (LSB) in early to mid-Cretaceous times.

Boreal Lower Cretaceous sediments are predominantly represented by CaCO3-poor mud- and siltstones of up to 2000 m thickness in northern Germany, which become more carbonate-rich during the Albian-Cenomanian transition and even chalkier in the upper Cenomanian to Coniacian interval. A number of global carbon isotope key events including the Valanginian Weissert Event, the OAEs 1a, b and d (Aptian-Albian) as well as for the early Late Cretaceous the Mid-Cenomanian Event (MCE), the OAE 2 (Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event) and the Navigation Event, among others, have been identified allowing for a detailed comparison with Tethyan and other Boreal records. Thus, this new detailed chemostratigraphy provides a unique opportunity to potentially overcome many still existing Boreal–Tethyan correlation issues. The presented record can be considered to be almost complete, albeit a small gap in the early Albian cannot be ruled.

How to cite: Bornemann, A., Erbacher, J., Blumenberg, M., and Voigt, S.: A new Berriasian to Coniacian composite carbon isotope record from the Boreal Realm, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2200,, 2022.

EGU22-2260 | Presentations | SSP2.1

The response of benthic foraminifera to the late Miocene-early Pliocene Biogenic Bloom: the record from Southeast Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1085) 

Maria Elena Gastaldello, Claudia Agnini, Thomas Westerhold, Edoardo Dallanave, and Laia Alegret

The late Miocene-early Pliocene Biogenic Bloom was a significant event defined by the anomalously high marine biological productivity documented in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans; but its causes and consequences at different paleogeographical settings are not yet fully understood. Previous records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1085 (Cape Basin, Southeast Atlantic Ocean) indicate enhanced biological productivity between 7 and 4 Ma, as supported by increased linear sedimentation rates, benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, and increased total organic carbon mass accumulation rates (Diester-Haass et al., 2002; 2004). To look into the paleoenvironmental consequences of the Biogenic Bloom, we investigated the benthic foraminiferal turnover at this site. Results were integrated with an age model based on a bio-astrocyclostratigraphic tuning and low-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope records on benthic foraminifera (i.e. Cibicidoides mundulus) across an interval spanning from the Tortonian (late Miocene) to the Zanclean (early Pliocene). Quantitative analyses of the assemblages and statistical analyses point to increased food supply to the seafloor. The proliferation of phytodetritus exploiting taxa such as Alabamina weddellensis and Epistominella exigua point to an episodic nutrient supply related to seasonal phytoplankton blooms during the Biogenic Bloom.


Diester-Haass, L., Meyers, P. A., & Vidal, L. (2002). The late Miocene onset of high productivity in the Benguela Current upwelling system as part of a global pattern. Marine Geology, 180(1-4), 87-103.

Diester-Haass, L., Meyers, P. A., & Bickert, T. (2004). Carbonate crash and biogenic bloom in the late Miocene: Evidence from ODP Sites 1085, 1086, and 1087 in the Cape Basin, southeast Atlantic Ocean. Paleoceanography, 19(1).


University of Padova DOR grant, CARIPARO Foundation Ph.D. scholarship.

Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER funds (PID2019-105537RB-I00).

How to cite: Gastaldello, M. E., Agnini, C., Westerhold, T., Dallanave, E., and Alegret, L.: The response of benthic foraminifera to the late Miocene-early Pliocene Biogenic Bloom: the record from Southeast Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1085), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2260,, 2022.

The Nordkapp Basin is located in the southwest Barents Sea. It was formed by rifting in the late Palaeozoic. As the area containing the basin moved north from the equator the climate changed from warm and arid to temperate and humid. Initially a large carbonate platform developed in the Barents Sea in the Carboniferous and Permian. The change in climate due to northward drift caused the platform to shift from a carbonate to clastic platform at the end of the Permian. The sea level changed several times during the Mesozoic due to a combination of eustatic changes and salt diapirism. The depositional environment in the area had been interpreted from multiple cores to vary from onshore coastal plain and delta plain to shelf environment due to the large scale sea level changes. In this work, the cores have been revisited to study smaller scale changes within the environments that had been recognised but not described extensively. The nature of small scale changes is different in different environments and can be seen in different aspects like the bioturbation intensity and clay and sand content. This work will compare the smaller scale sea level changes across the different environments encountered in the cores.


How to cite: Sandvold, M. and Felix, M.: Small scale changes superimposed on larger scale sea level-induced changes in cores from the Nordkapp Basin., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2502,, 2022.

EGU22-2950 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Preliminary report on δ13Ccarb isotope excursion through the Silurian of Kurtuvėnai - 161 borehole, Northwest Lithuania 

Tomas Želvys, Andrej Spiridonov, Anna Cichon-Pupienis, Andrius Garbaras, and Sigitas Radzevicius

Lithuania is located in the eastern part of the Silurian Baltic Basin which was located near the equator during the Silurian. Kurtuvėnai -161 borehole is located in the Northwest Lithuania. The Silurian geological section of investigated interval is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate deposits and represents deep marine environments.

Samples for stable carbon isotope analysis were collected from 1441 – 1316 m depth interval. The sampling intervals range from 0.2 up to 1m. The stable carbon isotope values from carbonates were measured using Thermo Gasbench II coupled with a Thermo Delta V isotope ratio mass spectrometer.

In the investigated interval 10 graptolites biozones were distinguished: Lapworthi Biozone is distinguished in the lowest part of the section and linked to the Adavere Regional Stage (uppermost Telychian); the centrifugus - belophorus biozones mark the Jaani Regional Stage; perneri - lundgreni biozones correspond to the Jaagarahu; and parvus - nassa biozones marks the Gėluva Regional Stage of the Wenlock.

According to the δ13Ccarb isotope analysis results, a positive excursion was detected in the lower part of the studied interval from 1422.8 m up to 1390.8 m depth. There, the δ13Ccarb maximum value is 3.87 ‰. This positive δ13Ccarb anomaly can be linked to the Ireveken positive stable carbon isotopes excursion and the centrifugus – belophorus biozones interval of the lower Wenlock. We can also observe a positive δ13Ccarb excusion in the upper part of Homerian (from 1327 m depth) which potentially can be the lower part of the Mulde positive stable carbon isotopic event.

In summary, the δ13Ccarb values varied from -1.35 ‰ up to 3.92 ‰ in studied interval of Kurtuvėnai-161 borehole. A more detailed biostratigraphic and lithological study is needed for a better understanding of the integrated stratigraphy of the Silurian geological section in the Kurtuvėnai-161 borehole in the future.

How to cite: Želvys, T., Spiridonov, A., Cichon-Pupienis, A., Garbaras, A., and Radzevicius, S.: Preliminary report on δ13Ccarb isotope excursion through the Silurian of Kurtuvėnai - 161 borehole, Northwest Lithuania, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2950,, 2022.

EGU22-3197 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Synchronizing Rock Clocks in the Late Cambrian 

Zhengfu Zhao, Nicolas Thibault, Tais W. Dahl, Niels H. Schovsbo, Aske L. Sørensen, Christian M.Ø. Rasmussen, and Arne T. Nielsen

The Cambrian is the most poorly dated period of the past 541 million years of Earth history. This hampers analysis of profound environmental and biological changes that took place during this period. Astronomically forced climate cycle recognized in sediments and anchored to radioisotopic ages provides a powerful geochronometer that has fundamentally refined Mesozoic–Cenozoic time scales but not yet the Palaeozoic. Here we report a continuous astronomical signal detected as geochemical variations (1 mm resolution) in the late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation that is used to establish a 16 Myr-long astronomical time scale, anchored by radioisotopic dates. The resulting time scale is biostratigraphically well-constrained, allowing correlation of the late Cambrian global stage boundaries with a 405-kyr astrochronological framework. This enables a first assessment, in numerical time, of the evolution of major biotic and abiotic changes, including the end-Marjuman extinction and the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion, that characterized the late Cambrian Earth.

How to cite: Zhao, Z., Thibault, N., W. Dahl, T., H. Schovsbo, N., L. Sørensen, A., M.Ø. Rasmussen, C., and T. Nielsen, A.: Synchronizing Rock Clocks in the Late Cambrian, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3197,, 2022.

EGU22-3547 | Presentations | SSP2.1

AMUSED: A MUltidisciplinary Study of past global climatE changes from continental and marine archives in the MeDiterranean region. The Castiglione maar drilling (central Italy) 

Patrizia Macrì, Chiara Caricchi, Francesca D’Ajello Caracciolo, Alessio Di Roberto, Biagio Giaccio, Liliana Minelli, Iacopo Nicolosi, Bianca Scateni, Gaia Siravo, and Alessandra Smedile

The current “global warming” has been widely attributed to a human-induced greenhouse effect however, until the natural variability of climate is totally understood, it is extremely difficult disentangle the natural and human-induced climatic signal and the resulting effects in a short and long period. In order to understand the role that each component plays in the climate processes it becomes essential to acquire considerably longer records than the time it takes for them to undergo significant changes. The wealth of paleoclimatic information, and the improvement of our knowledge, relies on high-quality and high-resolution data availability, provided that these are anchored to accurate age models.

AMUSED ( is a project funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia aimed at reconstruct the climate variability in the central Mediterranean region during the middle-late Quaternary, with focus to the Holocene, by integrating paleoclimate multi-proxies data acquired from different paleoenvironmental settings. In detail, the project investigates lacustrine, speleothem and marine successions in central Italy at different temporal scales and resolution (i.e., from orbital to sub-millennial scale). Additionally, the project aims at the evaluation and reduction of the natural CO2 emission trough plantation of CO2-absorbing flora in the Colli Albani volcanic district.

The lacustrine sedimentary succession of the Castiglione maar (Colli Albani Volcano) that based on low-resolution previous studies should account for the last 280 kyr, has been selected as main continental target of the project. Intense Quaternary peri-Tyrrhenian volcanism, produced a large number of tephra that emplaced in the adjacent continental sedimentary basins, making this area suitable for the application of tephrochronology, useful for correlation and synchronization of geological records. Preliminary geophysical exploration surveys (electrical resistivity tomography and ground magnetic) were conducted across the Castiglione maar to reconstruct the subsurface structure and geometry of the basin and identify the best drilling site. Two parallel borehole (C1 and C2) were drilled in order to maximize the amount of recover and avoid large stratigraphic gaps. We retrieved 116 and 126,5 m of alternating sands, clay and silt sediments for drills C1 and C2, respectively. An additional core C3 has been afterwards located between the two boreholes, to increase the recovery of the upper 15 m of succession, strongly disturbed in the two former drills. Several tephra layers were already identified and sampled.

The sediment cores will be sampled for high-resolution multi-proxies analyses: stratigraphic, micropaleontological, palynological, geochemical (stable isotopic composition), and paleomagnetic. Moreover, a robust chronology for Castiglione records will be produced by combining 40Ar/39Ar dating of the tephra layers back to 280 kyr, and 14C dating within the last 45 kyr. In addition, a paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy will be derived, providing original target curves and an environmental magnetic investigation will be carried out, by using rock magnetic properties variations in sediments as environmental/climatic proxies.

How to cite: Macrì, P., Caricchi, C., D’Ajello Caracciolo, F., Di Roberto, A., Giaccio, B., Minelli, L., Nicolosi, I., Scateni, B., Siravo, G., and Smedile, A.: AMUSED: A MUltidisciplinary Study of past global climatE changes from continental and marine archives in the MeDiterranean region. The Castiglione maar drilling (central Italy), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3547,, 2022.

Carbonate deposits from the easternmost part of the Getic Carbonate Platform form good quality outcrops in the Postăvaru and Piatra Mare Massifs (Patrulius 1976). The average thickness of the carbonate succession reaches 400 m in these areas (Patrulius 1976). In the Postăvaru Massif, the Mesozoic succession consists of Upper Jurassic−Lower Cretaceous carbonate deposits which are covered by upper Albian−Cenomanian Conglomerates (Săndulescu 1964). In the Piatra Mare Massif, the carbonate succession comprises Callovian−Berriasian olistoliths which are embedded in the general mass of the upper Aptian Conglomerates (Săndulescu et al. 1972).

  We collected approximately 600 limestone samples from various sections, in the Postăvaru and Piatra Mare Massifs.

The following sections are located in the Postăvaru Massif: Valea Dragă, Drumul Albastru, Larga Mare, Vârful Postăvaru, Muchia Cheii-Trei Fetițe, Trei Fetițe-Poiana Secuilor, Trei Fetițe-Cabana Postăvaru.

Detailed sampling was performed in the Piatra Mare Massif, in the following sections: Bunloc Est, Bunloc Vest, Cariera Bunloc, Cheile Baciului, Cabana Piatra Mare, Valea Gârcinului, Șura de Piatră, Șura de Piatră-Vârful Piatra Mare, Piatra Scrisă, Coada Pietrei Mari, Șirul Stâncilor, Peștera de Gheață, Prăpastia Ursului and Tamina.

The following facies associations were identified: bioclastic intraclastic grainstone/rudstone, coral-microbial boundstone, packstone to floatstone with pelagic microfossils, bioclastic packstone-grainstone, peloidal oncoidic packstone-grainstone, bioclastic grainstone with black pebbles, wackestone with cyanobacteria nodules, fenestral wackestone, non-fossiliferous mudstone.


The micropaleontological association contains dasycladalean algae [Salpingoporella pygmea (Gümbel), Petrascula bursiformis Etallon, Aloisalthella sulcata (Alth), encrusting organisms [Bacinella type structures, Crescentiella morronensis (Crescenti), Koskinobulina socialis Cherchi & Schröder, Radiomura cautica Senowbari-Daryan & Schäfer, Perturbatacrusta leini Schlagintweit & Gawlick, Taumathoporella parvovesiculifera (Raineri)], foraminifera [Bramkampella arabica Redmond, Coscinoconus alpinus (Leupold), Coscinoconus delphinensis (Arnaud-Vanneau et al.), Coscinoconus sagittarius (Arnaud-Vanneau et al.), Frentzenella involuta (Mantsurova), Protopeneroplis striata Weynschenk, Protopeneroplis ultragranulata Gorbatchik] and pelagic microorganisms (Calpionella alpina Lorenz).

The identified microfacies types indicate that carbonate material was deposited in two distinct depositional settings. The first one includes slope to basin areas while the second one comprises inner platform depositional environments. The presence of abundant C. alpina and various representatives of the genus Coscinoconus (C. delphinensis, C. sagittarius) indicates that deposition continued in the area at least until the lower Berriasian.  


This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P1-1.1-PD-2019-0456, within PNCDI III


Patrulius D (1976) Upper Jurassic−Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks in the eastern part of the Getic Carbonate Platform and the adjacent flysch troughs. In: Patrulius D, Drăgănescu A, Baltreș A, Popescu B, Rădan S (eds) Carbonate Rocks and Evaporites-Guidebook. International Colloquium on Carbonate Rocks and Evaporites, Guidebook Series 15, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Bucharest, pp 71-82

Săndulescu, M., 1964. Geological structure of the Postăvarul-Runcu Massif (Brașov Mountains) (in Romanian). Anuarul Comitetului Geologic, 34 (2): 382–422.

Săndulescu M, Patrulius D, Ștefănescu M (1972 a) Geological Map of Romania, scale 1:50 000, Brașov Sheet, 111 a (in Romanian). Institutul Geologic, București

How to cite: Mircescu, C. V., Bucur, I. I., and Pleș, G.: Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous limestones from the easternmost Getic Carbonate Platform (Southern Carpathians, Romania). Microfacies, microfossils and depositional environments, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4119,, 2022.

The culmination of climate cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, known as the Terminal Eocene Event (TEE), forced the eustatic sea level fall crucial for isolation of the Paratethys from the Tethys Ocean. The isolated, northern marginal region contained starved Carpathian Flysch basins characterised by reduced circulation, dysaerobic bottom conditions and increased influx of riverine freshwater. The Cergowa Beds (Lower Oligocene) serve as an example of the icehouse period-related deposition of sandstones and subordinate sandstones-mudstones emplaced by sediment gravity flows in a predominantly anoxic depository dominated by dark shales and associated fine-grained facies of the Menilite Beds. Autochthonous calcareous nannoplankton species indicative of brackish water conditions reflect the Cergowa basin isolation and strong influence by freshwater influx during the zone NP23. This stage was dominated by high volume, high-density sediment gravity flows, occasionally triggered by hyperpycnal effluents. Coalified terrestrial organic matter, especially abundant in the proximal sector and including tree trunk fragments up to 2 m in length, suggests direct connection existed between the fluvial supply and redeposition by sediment gravity flows, probably via a shelf-edge delta supplying the Cergowa basin. The marginal character of the Cergowa basin enables to detect even subtle episodes as: (i) the CCD fluctuations, reflecting coccolithophorid-rich productivity, which is recorded as the laminated pelagic Tylawa Limestones, or (ii) local slope disequilibria reflected by hybrid flows interpreted as resulting from synsedimentary tectonic deformations of the basin floor. Generally, the Alpine orogenic movements enhanced the basin isolation and shoaling by tectonic uplift of the source area. However, the late stage of the Cergowa basin development, dated by the nannoplankton zone NP24, represents an open sea realm supplied by turbidity currents of decreasing density, with time suppressed and finally replaced by the anoxic sediments of the Menilite Beds type. Therefore, the deepening of the marine environment progressed against the prevailing global cooling and continuing eustatic sea-level fall. This apparent discrepancy emphasises the importance of the regional tectonic deformations of the basin that superseded the global climatic influence.

How to cite: Pszonka, J. and Wendorff, M.: Interplay of global climatic and regional tectonic controls in marginal basins, with an example of the Cergowa Beds deposition (Outer Carpathians) during the Oligocene icehouse, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4237,, 2022.

Climate-controlled sea-level rise and fall have important effects on the depositional processes of strata. During periods of widespread glaciation, climate cycles influence sea-level rise and fall by controlling ice sheet growth and melting. The Late Cretaceous period was characterized by a typical greenhouse climate, and evidence for the presence of ice is strongly debated. However, the sedimentary record shows short-term larger sea-level fluctuations, and there is growing evidence for aquifer-eustasy (Sames et al. 2020) as an additional mechanism controlling sea-level rise and fall during this period. Field observations, microscopic observations, and analytical studies on upper Santonian to lower Campanian coal-bearing strata of the Gosau Group in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Hofer et al. 2011) have led to the identification of marginal marine mixed carbonate-siliciclastic cycles. Coal layers and lacustrine fine-grained sediments are present and attest to continental sedimentation with raised groundwater table, whereas intermittent marine strata with foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton give evidence for marine incursions and high sea-level intervals. In a frame of a University of Vienna project, such Upper Cretaceous coal-bearing cycles in European basins will be investigated in detail to infer regional and Tethyan-wide controlling processes on sea-level and groundwater-table.

How to cite: Xiang, X., Wagreich, M., and Draganits, E.: Investigating Greenhouse climate control on coal-bearing cycles in the Tethyan Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4298,, 2022.

This study investigates the Paleogene deep-water depositional system of the Gosau Group at Gams, Styria (Austria). The examined sections of Danian to Ypresian age (NP1-NP12) comprise sediments of the Nierental and Zwieselalm formations. Four deep-water clastics facies assemblages were encountered, (1) carbonate-poor turbidites, (2) carbonate-rich turbidites, (3) marl-bearing turbidites and (4) a marl-dominated facies. Slump beds and mass flow deposits are common in all facies.

The examined sections predominantly consist of sandy and silty graded beds, including fine breccia layers at the base, to silty shales or claystones on top. Normal grading, lamination, amalgamation of sandy beds and bioturbation are characteristic for all sections. The thickness of sandstone beds varies strongly from only centimeters to several meters, but in general, sandy beds get thicker at sections dated at late Selandian age or younger. Within thinner beds Bouma Tbcd intervals are present. Thus, most sections contain sequences of thin to medium-bedded, fine-grained turbidites.

Based on heavy mineral, thin section, microprobe, and paleoflow analyses, provenance was from the surrounding Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) rocks and exhuming metamorphic Upper Austroalpine units to the south. Provenance indexes based on heavy mineral assemblages indicate the dominance of an upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies source of the investigated sediments. In addition, biogenic-calcareous material was delivered by adjacent contemporaneous shelf zones.

The sedimentary depocenter was situated at the slope of the incipient Alpine orogenic wedge, in frontal parts of the NCA, facing the subducting Penninic Ocean/Alpine Tethys. The evolution of the Gams Basin was connected to the eoalpine and mesoalpine orogeny, and the adjunctive transpressional setting. The Gams slope basin provided a fairly small depositional area and accommodation space on the incipient alpine orogenic wedge, and the pervasive tectonic deformation of the NCA destroyed and obscured important features of the formerly confined source-to-sink system. However, the Gams deep-water depositional system is interpreted as an aggrading or prograding submarine fan, deposited into a small confined slope basin, positioned along an active continental margin, bound and influenced by (strike-slip) faults, related to crustal shortening. The development of the Gams slope basin and its infilling sequences was mainly dominated by tectonism and sediment supply, rather than by eustatic sea-level fluctuations. General greenhouse conditions, with enhanced chemical weathering under seasonal conditions are assumed for the entire Gosau Group of Gams (Upper Cretaceous to Eocene), which enhanced erosion and facilitated a greater terrestrial sediment supply. Particularly an increased input of siliciclastics around the PETM is noticeable, including significant numbers of sandy turbidites. The basin was cut off during the Eocene due to renewed orogeny. A Quaternary analogue for the Paleogene basin setting of the Gams area is represented by the Santa Monica Basin in the California Continental Borderland.

How to cite: Koukal, V. and Wagreich, M.: The Paleogene Gosau Group of Gams slope basin of the incipient Eastern Alpine orogenic wedge (Austria), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4589,, 2022.

EGU22-4796 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Quantifying volcanism and organic carbon burial across Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 

Nina M. Papadomanolaki, Niels A.G.M. van Helmond, Heiko Paelike, Appy Sluijs, and Caroline P. Slomp

Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (ca. 94 Ma; OAE2) was one of the largest Mesozoic carbon cycle perturbations, but associated carbon emissions, primarily from the Caribbean large igneous province (LIP) and marine burial fluxes, are poorly constrained. Here, we use the carbon cycle box model LOSCAR-P to quantify the role of LIP volcanism and enhanced marine organic carbon (Corg) burial as constrained by the magnitude and shape of the positive stable carbon isotope (δ13C) excursion (CIE) in the exogenic carbon pool and atmospheric pCO2 reconstructions. In our best fit scenario, two pulses of volcanic carbon input—0.065 Pg C yr–1 over 170 k.y. and 0.075 Pg C yr–1 over 40 k.y., separated by an 80 k.y. interval with an input of 0.02 Pg C yr–1—are required to simulate observed changes in δ13C and pCO2. Reduced LIP activity and Corg burial lead to pronounced pCO2 reductions at the termination of both volcanic pulses, consistent with widespread evidence for cooling and a temporal negative trend in the global exogenic δ13C record. Finally, we show that observed leads and lags between such features in the records and simulations are explained by differences in the response time of components of the carbon cycle to volcanic forcing. 

How to cite: Papadomanolaki, N. M., van Helmond, N. A. G. M., Paelike, H., Sluijs, A., and Slomp, C. P.: Quantifying volcanism and organic carbon burial across Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4796,, 2022.

EGU22-4815 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Eocene seasonality resolved by coupled Ba/Ca and stable oxygen isotope ratios in bivalve shells 

Jorit F. Kniest, Amelia Davies, Jonathan A. Todd, Julia D. Sigwart, David Evans, Jens Fiebig, Silke Voigt, and Jacek Raddatz

The Eocene, as the warmest epoch during the Cenozoic, has received much attention as it can inform us about the features of global warmth, highly relevant to a “high-CO2” future. However, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding some key features of global warm climates, such as how higher global temperatures might have affected the duration and intensity of seasonality.  Furthermore, recognizing seasonal cycles is essential when interpreting proxy data and reconstructing paleo climate, e.g. in order to understand inter-annual bias between proxies. 

In the current study the seasonal variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and fresh water input into the Anglo-Paris Basin (subjacent areas of the Paleo-North Sea) was investigated. Marginal seas, like the Paleo North Sea, are an important intersection between the continental and marine realm, and are especially sensitive to short-term climate variations.

In order to resolve seasonal and perennial changes in SST and freshwater balance, we measured Ba/Ca, δ18O, and the clumped isotopic composition (∆47) of exceptionally well-preserved fossil molluscs. Although δ18O is commonly used for the reconstruction of temperature, its calculation often assumes a constant δ18O value of seawater, which might not be true on seasonal scales and/or within swallow marine basins. In this context, ∆47 was employed to determine the average temperature amplitude, due to its independence from δ18Oseawater. Additionally, Ba/Ca was used to account for periods with enhanced fresh water input, because barium mostly enters the oceans via fluvial systems and could therefor indicate seasonally enhanced and isotopic lighter fresh water input.            

The bivalve species Venericor planicosta was employed as proxy archive, due to its long life span (10-20 years) and its wide distribution in the Anglo-Paris Basin during the Eocene. The pristinely preserved, aragonitic bivalve shells were sampled by micro-milling (δ18O, ∆47), as well as, laser ablation (Ba/Ca), to generate proxy records with high temporal resolution.

The isotopic data reveal well pronounced seasonal oscillation with a sinusoidal shape and a maximum difference of 2‰, from -3,5‰ to -5,5‰. On average, the inter-annual variation of the δ18O record is around 1‰. The Ba/Ca record, on the other hand, shows a flat background with recurring large and sharp peaks. While the baseline Ba/Ca values are around 20 µmol/mol, the peaks can reach up to 300 µmol/mol. The peaks largely fall together with periods of depleted δ18O values. These results hint to a possible seasonal bias of temperature records in the Anglo-Paris basin based purely on δ18O, due to variable δ18O of seawater. This is further implied by the back-calculation of δ18Oseawater from ∆47 measurements, revealing a range from 2‰ to -4‰. 

How to cite: Kniest, J. F., Davies, A., Todd, J. A., Sigwart, J. D., Evans, D., Fiebig, J., Voigt, S., and Raddatz, J.: Eocene seasonality resolved by coupled Ba/Ca and stable oxygen isotope ratios in bivalve shells, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4815,, 2022.

Lower and Middle Jurassic sedimentary deposits in southern Germany have accumulated in a shallow-marine shelf environment and are typically dominated by clayey lithologies with minor occurrences of sandstones and limestones. The sedimentary evolution and paleoclimatic significance of these poorly exposed deposits often remain largely unexplored. Here we present a suite of high-resolution x-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning data from southern Germany covering the Upper Toarcian and Aalenian stages. The overall objective of this study is to identify Transgressive-Regressive cycles based on the analysis of three cores obtained during scientific drilling campaigns in 2019-2021. Cores have been analyzed with an Avaatech XRF Core Scanner at a 10 mm sampling interval, an energy of 10 keV and a current of 500 µA to measure element intensities ranging from aluminium through iron. Resulting trends in elemental ratios indicative for subtle grain-size variations such as Si/Al are used to reconstruct shoreline trajectories and establish a sequence stratigraphic framework (see Thöle et al. 2020). Particularly the thick and largely homogenous Opalinuston Formation appears suitable in that respect, likely resulting from extraordinarily high sedimentation rates during the lower Aalenian in southern Germany, thus providing a complete but unexplored archive of paleoclimatic signals.



Thöle, H., Bornemann, A., Heimhofer, U., Luppold, F. W., Blumenberg, M., Dohrmann, R., & Erbacher, J. (2020). Using high‐resolution XRF analyses as a sequence stratigraphic tool in a mudstone‐dominated succession (Early Cretaceous, Lower Saxony Basin, Northern Germany). The Depositional Record, 6(1), 236-258.

How to cite: Mann, T., Bornemann, A., and Erbacher, J.: A sequence-stratigraphic framework for the Toarcian – Aalenian from southern Germany based on x-ray fluorescence core scanning data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4877,, 2022.

EGU22-5602 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Dominance of Pacific Sourced Deep Water in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the last glacials 

Moritz Hallmaier, Eva M. Rückert, Jasmin M. Link, Laura Lütkes, and Norbert Frank

The deep Southern Ocean (SO) circulation is of major significance for the understanding of the ocean´s impact on Earth’s climate as uptake and release of CO­­­2 depend strongly on the redistribution of well and poorly ventilated water masses.

Neodymium isotopes preserved in deep sea sediment have proven useful to study the deep ocean circulation and water mass provenance thanks to basin scale isotope gradients between the Pacific and the North Atlantic. Here we present novel neodymium isotope data (εNd) of three sediment cores in 2.8, 3.3 and 3.6 km depth in the Atlantic sector of the SO to assess the presence of old and poorly ventilated Pacific sourced Deep Water (PDW) during the past 150 ka.

The sediment cores indicate dramatic temporal changes of εNd spanning a range of 7.7 ε-units from -1.0 to -8.3. While the εNd variability of the two deeper cores is driven by changes in ocean circulation, the shallowest drilling site is likely influenced by a local source of radiogenic Nd, such as weathering of volcanic material.

During peak glacial periods with maximum ice extent and a shoaled AMOC we observe radiogenic εNd values of ~-2.5 to -3.5. This confirms a predominance of glacial PDW at depths of >3 km with proportions close to 100% and thus increasing the water volume portion with enhanced respired carbon. We further advocate for the persistent presence of PDW even during interglacials although with a much smaller proportion.

Hence, our results enforce the leading role of the SO in storing and reinjecting respired CO2 into the deep Atlantic Ocean and the Atmosphere during glacial-interglacial terminations.

How to cite: Hallmaier, M., Rückert, E. M., Link, J. M., Lütkes, L., and Frank, N.: Dominance of Pacific Sourced Deep Water in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the last glacials, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5602,, 2022.

EGU22-5761 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Insights from the first detailed record of Late Cretaceous seawater lithium isotopic composition 

Sandra J. Huber, Vanessa Schlidt, Linus Lenk, H.-Michael Seitz, Jacek Raddatz, and Silke Voigt

The late Cretaceous climate is represented by an 8-10 °C decline of global mean temperatures that terminated global warmth of mid-Cretaceous times. Causal mechanisms of the cooling are still not well constrained and discussed in the interplay of reduced volcanic greenhouse gas emission and intensified silicate weathering as a global carbon cycle feedback. The lithium isotopic composition (δ7Li) of marine carbonates is a proxy for the chemical weathering intensity of silicate rocks, and thus provides information about the role of silicate weathering as thermostat and sink for atmospheric CO2.

Here, we present the first detailed chalk-derived Late Cretaceous δ7Li record (91-66 Ma) of the boreal white chalk in Northern Germany (Lägerdorf-Kronsmoor-Hemmoor) and from sections in southern England as archive for the seawater lithium isotopic composition. In the course of this study, we will also analyze the archives of skeletal calcite from brachiopods, belemnites and rudists, which should enable us to identify systematic offsets among different calcifiers related to vital effects by the direct comparison of fossilized shells and their surrounding sediments.

To handle the potential impact of clay contamination in bulk carbonates, we applied a pre-leaching and leaching procedure with 1 M ammonium acetate and 0.05 M nitric acid. The method was tested for a 1.85 Ma old sample of coccolith ooze from the Manihiki Plateau (equatorial West Pacific Ocean), which has consistent δ7Li values and shows a systematic negative 3-4 ‰ offset to modern seawater. In addition, the degree of potentially leached silicates is monitored by the analysis of E/Ca ratios, like Al/Ca.

In total, our late Cretaceous lithium isotope record shows a trend of rising δ7Li values between +16 and +25 ‰. Superimposed, the curve displays a rise in the Santonian, a local maximum in the early Campanian followed by a drop to a local minimum in the late Campanian. Subsequently, the δ7Li values rise again towards elevated values in the Maastrichtian. Overall, the shape of the δ7Li curve strongly resembles the evolution of deep-sea temperatures based on benthic oxygen isotopes suggesting a close link between climate and weathering. Thereby, more positive δ7Li values correspond to cooling periods and the late Campanian lowering of δ7Li values parallels the intermittent deep-sea warming. Such a pattern points towards a strong relationship between the congruency of silicate weathering and climate on a multi-million year time scale.

How to cite: Huber, S. J., Schlidt, V., Lenk, L., Seitz, H.-M., Raddatz, J., and Voigt, S.: Insights from the first detailed record of Late Cretaceous seawater lithium isotopic composition, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5761,, 2022.

EGU22-6334 | Presentations | SSP2.1

CycloNet: European Cyclostratigraphy Network 

Philippe Claeys, Matthias Sinnesael, David De Vleeschouwer, and Christian Zeeden

The study of astronomical climate forcing and the application of cyclostratigraphy experienced a spectacular growth over the last decades. In 2018, the first Cyclostratigraphy Intercomparison Project (CIP) workshop constituted the first attempt to compare different methodological approaches and unite the global community around standard, uniform and reliable procedures. Two major conclusions were: [1] There is a need for further organization of the cyclostratigraphic community (e.g. to streamline different methodologies); [2] Cyclostratigraphy is a trainable skill, but currently many universities lack specific resources for training and education. Today, a regular newsletter, a dedicated free open-access journal “Cyclostratigraphy and Rhythmic Climate Change (CRCC)”, a scientific podcast titled CycloPod, and an educational website “” connect the cyclostratigraphy community. The newly created CycloNet (Research Foundation Flanders FWO Funding) expands this effort into a real and sustainable scientific research network with partners from all around Europe, and open to the global community. At the same time, CycloNet creates a platform for streamlining and integrating new multi-disciplinary approaches. The main scientific targets for CycloNet in the next five years are: [1] Set up a diverse and sustainable community structure, relying on exchange, interaction and training, [2] Boost research by novel methodological approaches applying advanced signal processing techniques, [3] Organize a second Cyclostratigraphic Intercomparison Project. With this poster, we reach out to the broader community to exchange ideas on concepts and activities that CycloNet can help to develop further towards the future.

How to cite: Claeys, P., Sinnesael, M., De Vleeschouwer, D., and Zeeden, C.: CycloNet: European Cyclostratigraphy Network, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6334,, 2022.

EGU22-6583 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Marine mollusk shells record the seasonal variations of temperature during the Mid Eocene Climatic Optimum in the Paris Basin 

Loïc Marlot, Damien Huyghe, Justine Briais, Laurent Emmanuel, Mathieu Daëron, Christine Flehoc, Didier Merle, and Olivier Aguerre

During the Middle-Late Eocene, the Earth transitioned from a greenhouse to icehouse period. Within this period, a warming phase of 500 kyr called MECO (Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum) took place at the beginning of the Bartonian (from 40.5 Ma to 40 Ma - C18n). This event is characterized by a negative shift in the δ18O profile of benthic foraminifera associated with an increase of 4 to 6 °C in surface and deep ocean waters. The peak of the MECO is also characterized by a short δ13C negative excursion at 40.0 Myr during an overall increasing trend of δ13C. This positive trend of the δ13C curve appears to be related to an atmospheric increase in the pCO2, but the causes remains unclear.

Unlike the oceanic domain, few datas exist for the characterization of the MECO in coastal areas. Additionally, important component of the climatic context, such as the seasonal gradient of temperature, remain unknown. To unravel these uncertainties, this work focuses on the nearshore Eocene sedimentary records of the Paris Basin, which presents an important and remarkably well preserved paleobiodiversity of marine mollusk shells. Previous studies have confirmed that the MECO event is well recorded in Bartonian sediments, but due to several uncertainties, its stratigraphic position remains to be specified. Here we present a composite section that spans a stratigraphic interval covering the middle Lutetian (falunière de Grignon outcrop) and the Bartonian (Horizon de Mont-Saint Martin Formation, le Guépelle section and the Sables de Cresnes Formation). Thus, we combine different proxies provided by 18O, 13C and ∆47 analyses of marine mollusk shells sampled in these sections in order to clarify the stratigraphic position of the MECO in the sedimentary succession of the Paris Basin and to constrain the climatic expression of this hyperthermal event in shallow marine environment. 

Isotopic analyses were performed on the shells of 3 Bartonian mollusks species: 2 bivalves represented by Bicorbula gallica and Crassostrea cucullaris and 1 gastropod represented by Torquesia sulcifera. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) results both show a characteristic negative excursion at the end of the Sables du Guépelle formation, in the lower part of the Bartonian. Clumped isotope analyses were performed on some specimens of B. gallica and T. sulcifera in order to better constrain the composition of δ18Ow throughout the stratigraphic interval studied. These results indicate significant decreases in local δ18Ow over the lifetime of most individuals, interpreted as large infra-annual variations in salinity. Paleotemperatures calculated from the previously constrained δ18Ocarbonate increase by 4 to 10 °C during the MECO event , while the seasonal temperature variation decreases from 11-13 °C to 8 °C during the negative isotopic excursion of the end of the Sables du Guépelle formation.

Based on these new results, we propose that the MECO is recorded in the top of the Sables du Guépelle formation marked by a warming period and a lower seasonal temperature gradient. These results lead to a better chimio-chronostratigraphic calibration of the Bartonian deposits of the Paris Basin.

How to cite: Marlot, L., Huyghe, D., Briais, J., Emmanuel, L., Daëron, M., Flehoc, C., Merle, D., and Aguerre, O.: Marine mollusk shells record the seasonal variations of temperature during the Mid Eocene Climatic Optimum in the Paris Basin, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6583,, 2022.

EGU22-6605 | Presentations | SSP2.1

The Bassa Nera pond (Central Pyrenees), a potential sentinel of climatic changes over the last 15,000 years. 

Arnau Blasco, Miguel Angel Calero, Valentí Rull, Núria Cañellas-Boltà, Sandra Garcés, Encarnación Montoya, and Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia

Over the last decades, significant increases in temperature and in the incidence of extreme climatic events have been registered in the Iberian Peninsula. Environmental changes  are easily recorded in high mountain lakes, due to their sensitivity and isolated location. Since paleolimnological information can be very useful for planning and modelling future climate change scenarios, it is necessary to find suitable lakes and test their sensitivity to current and past climatic shifts in order to adequately fulfill these tasks.

In order to test the suitability of the Bassa Nera pond as an indicator of global climatic change, this study aims to examine the variations of different  paleoindicators over the last 15,000 years. The variations of paleoenvironmental data can be then compared with the changes of different biological indicators (chironomids, diatoms, pollen), to find likely correlations that can be used to figure out future climatic scenarios and to provide information for environmental management.

For this study, a core of approximately 1,100 cm was extracted (PATAM 12-A-14) and dated with radiometric techniques. Sedimentological analysis was performed by applying conventional stratigraphic techniques and X-ray fluorescence methods. The variability of the sedimentary sequence allowed us to reconstruct the different climatic events. The pond recorded a long sedimentary sequence encompassing the last 15,000 years. The sedimentological analysis allowed us to establish 5 different stratigraphic units which we have separated in two principal sections. The first section is formed by organic rich facies while the remains of the core is composed mainly of clays and silts facies with some sand layers.

These data will be very useful to establish which and how past climatic events have affected this high mountain basin, when reconstructing the evolution of main paleolimnological indicators of environmental change. And in conjunction with subsequent studies, it will establish whether or not the suitability of the Bassa Nera as a sentinel of climatic global change. This in turn will allow the  establishment of a network of sentinel lakes in the Iberian Peninsula.

How to cite: Blasco, A., Calero, M. A., Rull, V., Cañellas-Boltà, N., Garcés, S., Montoya, E., and Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.: The Bassa Nera pond (Central Pyrenees), a potential sentinel of climatic changes over the last 15,000 years., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6605,, 2022.

EGU22-7244 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the Flemish Bight (southern North Sea): a re-evaluation 

Ruth Plets, Marc De Batist, Tine Missiaen, Maikel De Clercq, David Garcia, Thomas Mestdagh, Wim Versteeg, Simon Fitch, Rachel Harding, Vince Gaffney, Freek Busschers, and Sytze van Heteren

New high-resolution seismic data (Sparker) and very-high-resolution parametric echosounder (PES) data acquired in an area of the southern North Sea (the Flemish Bight) reveal its Quaternary seismic stratigraphy in unprecedented detail. The identified seismo-stratigraphic units and geomorphological features have been examined with the view to better understand the Quaternary evolution of the southern North Sea.

Seven acoustic units were recognised, including Lower Pleistocene deltaic sediments, Eemian to lower Weichselian shallow marine to coastal (lagoonal) clay-silt-sands, and Holocene coastal peat layers overlain by intertidal and marine sediments. Four erosional events were identified, two of which can be traced as regionally occurring surfaces, and two occurring as localised incisions. Mapping of geomorphological features revealed potential Elsterian moraines in the UK sector, an Elsterian ice-pushed ridge in the Dutch sector and possible permafrost-related structures (probably dating to MIS3).  Seven newly dated peat samples, acquired near a tidal sand ridge known as the Brown Bank from depths between 31 m and 34 m below sea level and dating to between 9.5 and 10.9 cal ka BP, indicate that this area was terrestrial during the early Holocene.

The results form the basis to further improve the regional Quaternary stratigraphic framework of the area, to better understand the region’s (de)glacial history, to enhance sea-level reconstructions and to examine the area’s geographical importance for human occupation during Prehistory.

How to cite: Plets, R., De Batist, M., Missiaen, T., De Clercq, M., Garcia, D., Mestdagh, T., Versteeg, W., Fitch, S., Harding, R., Gaffney, V., Busschers, F., and van Heteren, S.: Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the Flemish Bight (southern North Sea): a re-evaluation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7244,, 2022.

EGU22-7766 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Charophyte biostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous (Wealden) Cuchia section, Basque-Cantabrian Chain, North Spain: Interest for regional stratigraphic correlation 

Khaled Trabelsi, Anna Tamara Mai, Benjamin Sames, Jens O. Herrle, and Frank Wiese

A 55 meters thick section at Cuchia, Basque-Cantabrian Chain, North Spain, mainly formed by Lower Cretaceous Wealden facies, has been intensively investigated from the micropalaeontological viewpoint. The carbonate beds intercalated within this series yield a rich and diverse charophyte assemblages of high biostratigraphic interest, which could be studied for the first time after successful preparation following the acetolysis method.

Twenty-two charophyte taxa were identified forming two distinct charophyte assemblages belonging to two successive charophyte biozones. The first charophyte assemblage, from the lower part of the studied section, is composed of Echinochara lazarii, Atopochara trivolvis var. triquetra, Globator mallardii var. trochiliscoides, Clavator grovesii var. gautieri, Clavator harrisii var. dongjingensis, C. harrisii var. harrisii, C. calcitrapus var. jiangluoensis, C. calcitrapus var. calcitrapus, Ascidiella stellata var. stellata, A. triquetra, Hemiclavator neimongolensis var. neimongolensis, H. neimongolensis var. posticecaptus, Mesochara voluta gr. voluta and Favargella sp. According to Pérez-Cano et al. (2021), such a charophyte assemblage belongs to the new Eurasian “Hemiclavator neimongolensis var. neimongolensis” biozone, late early Barremian–early late Barremian in age as calibrated by Sr isotope stratigraphy and by correlation with marine biostratigraphy.

The second charophyte assemblage, which occurs in the upper part of the studied section is composed of the species E. lazarii, A. trivolvis var. triquetra, A. trivolvis var. trivolvis, C. grovesii var. jiuquanensis, C. harrisii var. dongjingensis, C. harrisii var. harrisii, C. harrisii var. reyi, Ascidiella cruciata, H. neimongolensis var. neimongolensis, H. neimongolensis var. posticecaptus, Mesochara voluta gr. voluta, Munieria grambastii, Clavatoraxis sp., Charaxis sp.  and Tolypella sp. vel. Mesochara sp. According to Pérez-Cano et al. (2021), such a charophyte assemblage belongs to the new Eurasian “Clavator grovesii var. jiuquanensis” biozone, late Barremian–early Aptian in age as calibrated by Sr isotope stratigraphy and by correlation with marine biostratigraphy.

As the overlaying succeeding limestones is early Aptian in age, our results allow constraining the chronostratigraphy of the Wealden series at Cuchia section to the late early Barremian– late Barremian, instead of Hauterivian–Barremian (Najarro et al., 2011) as previously thought, leading for a more detailed stratigraphic correlation of the Cuchia section to equivalent units of the Iberian plate, especially from the Iberian Chain and the Pyrenees.


Najarro, M., Rosales, I., Martin-Chivelet, J. (2011). Major palaeoenvironmental perturbation in an Early Aptian carbonate platform: Prelude of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a. Sedimentary Geology 235, 50–71.

Pérez-Cano, J., Bover-Arnal, T., Martín-Closas, C. (2021). Barremian–early Aptian charophyte biostratigraphy revisited. Newsletters on Stratigraphy (in press). DOI: 10.1127/nos/2021/0662

How to cite: Trabelsi, K., Mai, A. T., Sames, B., Herrle, J. O., and Wiese, F.: Charophyte biostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous (Wealden) Cuchia section, Basque-Cantabrian Chain, North Spain: Interest for regional stratigraphic correlation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7766,, 2022.

EGU22-8150 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Litho- and cyclostratigraphy of the Aalenian Opalinusclay Formation in the Swabian Alb deduced from downhole logging data 

Katharina Leu, Christian Zeeden, Thomas Wonik, Thomas Mann, Jochen Erbacher, and André Bornemann

From 2019 to 2021, three cores were drilled at different locations in the southern German Swabian Alb as part of the SEPIA project (Sequence Stratigraphy of the Aalenian in Southern Germany). They comprise sediments of 200 to 250 m length and are penetrating Lower and Middle Jurassic strata from the Pliensbachian to Bathonian stages (~ 190-166 Ma). The aim of this project is the development of a sequence stratigraphic model of the South German Basin at the transition from the Lower to Middle Jurassic time. Conclusions should be drawn towards the source area of the sediments as well as on the influence of sea level fluctuations on sedimentation.

Today, the Swabian Alb is a SW-NE trending mountain chain consisting of mainly carbonate rocks, and is one of the most distinctive regions in Germany where Jurassic strata is cropping out. During the middle Jurassic, Europe was almost completely covered by a shallow epi-continental sea including several small emerging areas or islands, located at latitudes about 15° lower than today. Southern Germany experienced predominant deposition of fine clastic sediments in a tropical climate. The most common sediments of this period are dark clays and oolithic ironstones, whereas condensation and discontinuity surfaces occur in many instances. Accommodation space for these sediments was not only generated by changes in sea level, but also by continuing subsidence of the area, explaining the inhomogeneous thickness and changes in facies of the sediments.

The geophysical downhole logging data of the stratigraphic record is used to develop a lithological classification and correlation of the boreholes sediments by the application of a cluster analysis to the data. Furthermore, the downhole logging data is used to perform cyclostratigraphy in selected intervals. The focus of the intervals chosen for cyclostratigraphy lies on the Aalenian stage, as this stage holds the most continuous and extended record in all three boreholes. Predicted timespans of these intervals yield similar results of ~800-1100 ka for all three boreholes and might provide a new benchmark for progressive improvement, especially for cyclostratigraphic analyses of the Lower Aalenian Opalinusclay Formation.

How to cite: Leu, K., Zeeden, C., Wonik, T., Mann, T., Erbacher, J., and Bornemann, A.: Litho- and cyclostratigraphy of the Aalenian Opalinusclay Formation in the Swabian Alb deduced from downhole logging data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8150,, 2022.

EGU22-8721 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Semi-3D stratigraphic architecture of a siliciclastic shallow-marine platform: Insights from the Ktawa Group (Late Ordovician) in Morocco 

Déborah Harlet, Guilhem Amin Douillet, Jean-François Ghienne, Pierre Dietrich, Chloé Bouscary, Philippe Razin, and Fritz Schlunegger

A semi-3D stratigraphic architecture of the Lower Ktawa Group, deposited during the early Late Ordovician on the northern Gondwana platform in a shallow marine environment, was investigated in the Anti-Atlas. The logging of 42 sections reveals that the Lower Ktawa is dominated by shales, punctuated by fine to coarse sandstones forming successive cuestas. Here, focus is put on three main sand cuestas recording major sea-level drops.

The lowermost cuesta (Foum-Zguid Member) outcrops along >85 km, and dips southward. Three facies associations albeit with complex lateral relationships were distinguished: 1. In the West, coarse-grained cross-bedded sandstones. 2. In the central part, sandstones dominated by Hummocky-Cross-Stratifications (HCS), in amalgamated beds towards the West but isolated within shales towards the East. 3. In the East, dominance of highly bioturbated sandstones. A second cuesta (“Tissint Member”) outcrops exclusively on the western part of the transect, approximately 25-50 m above the Foum-Zguid cuesta, and also dips South-southwestward. This 40 m-thick sandstone complex has a sharp base and is composed of fine to coarse cross-bedded sandstones. At its northeastern limit, the 40 m-thick succession disappears within 3.5 km. The upper cuesta (Bou-Hajaj Member, 5-40 m thick) is found ca.160 m above the base of the Ktawa Group and outcrops in the eastern zone of the study area. Its southern part is characterized by the thickest stack of sandstones, organized in a shallowing upward trend, and comprises HCS-beds and channelized structures a few meters in width. The eastern part is dominated by coarse, bioturbated, cross-bedded sandstones lacking shallowing upward stacking patterns. Its dip is northward, in the opposite direction to the underlying two members. Moreover, from satellite images, a clinothem dipping towards the Northeast is identified, together with the dissociation of the cuesta in two sets pinching out northwestward.

On a regional scale, the directly underlying First Bani Group was reconstructed as a shallow shelf having a northward oriented proximal-to-distal trend (Marante, 2008). A study of the Ktawa Group ca. 200 km Northeast of our study zone evidenced a southwestward proximal-to-distal trend (Meddour, 2016). Furthermore, a regional depocenter of the Ktawa Group is generally thought to occur eastward from our study.

Three interpretation lines are considered to reconcile these apparently contradictory observations: 1. A locally eastward oriented proximal-to-distal trend within a complex sequence stratigraphic framework including superimposed high-frequency cycles. 2. A range of source feeders that may be successively active along an irregular coastline, thereby forming lobes with opposite dispersal patterns. 3. An interplay of reactivation of Panafrican faults (Anti-Atlas/Ougarta) cannot be excluded and may have locally changed the place(s) of maximum accommodation space during deposition. It may also have induced the formation of shoals that would have been partially eroded and recycled. Thus, these apparently contradictory proximal-to-distal trends may actually depict a turning point in the re-organization of the basin predating the end-Ordovician glacial advance.

How to cite: Harlet, D., Douillet, G. A., Ghienne, J.-F., Dietrich, P., Bouscary, C., Razin, P., and Schlunegger, F.: Semi-3D stratigraphic architecture of a siliciclastic shallow-marine platform: Insights from the Ktawa Group (Late Ordovician) in Morocco, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8721,, 2022.

EGU22-8915 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Geochronology of sediments as a tool to identify lost geological features - a case study from the Mesozoic sedimentary succession of the Kutch Basin, western India 

Angana Chaudhuri, István Dunkl, Jan Schönig, Hilmar von Eynatten, and Kaushik Das

Sedimentary successions capture the history of geological features and events observable on present-day earth surface as well as those exposed earlier but currently buried or lost to erosion. The Mesozoic rocks in the Kutch Basin (western India) deposited between Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous reveal interesting provenance information on lost orogens and buried basins. The southwesterly sediment transport direction indicates north and northwest of the Indian subcontinent as the source area. Detrital zircon and monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology identify dominant sediment input from source rocks equivalent to the late Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny (500–650 Ma) along with substantial input from those equivalent to the Cambro-Ordovician Bhimphedian (aka Kurgiakh) (400–500 Ma) orogeny. All other contributing source rocks (ranging from 700 Ma to 3300 Ma) are traceable to the source area following the sediment transport direction. However, outcrops of crystalline rocks with zircon and monazite ages corresponding to the dominant age components are virtually lacking. Rocks equivalent to the Pan-African orogeny are found only as sparse isolated outcrops in the source area. In contrast, this orogeny is well reported from the southern granulite terrain (India), Madagascar, Seychelles and Eastern Africa. Therefore, considering the position of continents during the Mesozoic and the predominance of a 500–650 Ma sediment source in the Kutch Basin, the Pan-African orogenic belt possibly extends to north and north-western India. The current dearth of these outcrops suggests extensive erosion during the Mesozoic greenhouse climate and/or burial under the Deccan Flood Basalts. The other dominant source (400–500 Ma), equivalent to the Bhimphedian orogeny, currently reported as isolated outcrops in the Himalayan-fold-thrust belt (northern India) might have been disturbed and buried by thrusting during the Cenozoic Himalayan orogeny. This study also reveals a large gap of nearly 280 Ma between the youngest detrital zircon (458 Ma) and the depositional age (~170 Ma). This gap may be explained by (i) input of recycled sediment from an older basin, and/or (ii) absence of younger metamorphic events in the source area. The evidences of sediment recycling from thin-section petrography and ultra-stable heavy mineral assemblages (dominated by zircon, rutile and tourmaline) suggest the possibility of a so far unknown (buried or completely eroded) sedimentary basin older than the Kutch Basin. The on-going study of detrital rutile grains in these sediments may provide an alternative explanation for the 280 Ma gap by revealing lower temperature metamorphic events that are not recorded by U-Th-Pb ages of zircon and monazite.

How to cite: Chaudhuri, A., Dunkl, I., Schönig, J., von Eynatten, H., and Das, K.: Geochronology of sediments as a tool to identify lost geological features - a case study from the Mesozoic sedimentary succession of the Kutch Basin, western India, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8915,, 2022.

EGU22-9308 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Severe cooling of the Atlantic thermocline during the last glacial 

Marleen Lausecker, Freya Hemsing, Thomas Krengel, Julius Förstel, Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau, Evan Cooper Border, Covadonga Orejas, Jürgen Titschak, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Anne-Marie Wefing, Paolo Montagna, Eric Douville, Lelia Matos, Jacek Raddatz, and Norbert Frank

The mean cooling of the global ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was recently estimated to 2.6°C using noble gases trapped in ice cores (1). The ocean, however, is highly heterogeneous with respect to its internal temperature varying both in latitude and water depth. While temperature changes in the deep ocean are small at about 2 - 3 °C (1,2), the upper ocean is more dynamic. Regional temperature anomalies of up to 7°C are predicted during the LGM compared to modern interior ocean temperature by global ocean circulation models (3). Due to the temperature drop to near freezing conditions and the global increase in salinity from ice sheet growth, the oceans’ deep interior became strongly haline stratified (2). Temperatures of the glacial ocean thermocline are, however, less well constrained.

Here, thermocline temperature reconstructions since the last glacial based on the Li/Mg ratio in cold-water coral skeletons are presented. The coral samples, collected from 300 - 1200 m water depths from different sites in the Atlantic (43°N to 25°S), reveal synchronous 5 - 7°C cooling during the last glacial period compared to today, as well as a dramatic shoaling of the thermocline. At the end of the LGM, warming of the upper thermocline ocean occurred early in the southern hemisphere followed by a fluctuating warming and thermocline deepening in the northern Hemisphere. This supports the oceanic climate seesaw proposed by Stocker and Johnson in 2003 (4). We thus propose dramatic changes in the export of polar waters towards the Equator and an enhanced subsurface ocean stratification leading to a mostly polar Atlantic with a shallow permanent thermocline during the glacial.



1) Bereiter et al., Nature 553, 39-44 (2018).
2) Adkins et al., Science 298, 1769-1773 (2002).
3) Ballarotta et al., Clim. Past 9, 2669-2686 (2013).
4) Stocker and Johnsen, Paleoceanography 18, 1087 (2003).

How to cite: Lausecker, M., Hemsing, F., Krengel, T., Förstel, J., Schröder-Ritzrau, A., Border, E. C., Orejas, C., Titschak, J., Wienberg, C., Hebbeln, D., Wefing, A.-M., Montagna, P., Douville, E., Matos, L., Raddatz, J., and Frank, N.: Severe cooling of the Atlantic thermocline during the last glacial, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9308,, 2022.

EGU22-9361 | Presentations | SSP2.1 | Highlight

“”: 540 million years of climate data at your fingertips 

Sebastian Steinig, Tessa Alexander, Dan Lunt, Paul Valdes, Zak Duggan, Patrick Lee, Jakub Navratil, Ikenna Offokansi, and Matthew Swann

We can only fully understand the past, present and future climate changes by bringing together data and process understanding from a broad range of environmental sciences. In theory, climate modelling provides a wealth of data of great interest to a wide variety of disciplines (e.g., chemistry, geology, hydrology), but in practice, the large volume and complexity of these datasets often prevent direct access and therefore limit their benefits for large parts of our community.

We present the new online platform “” to break down these barriers and provide intuitive and informative access to paleoclimate model data to our community. The current release enables interactive access to a recently published compilation of 109 HadCM3BL climate model simulations. Key climate variables (temperature, precipitation, vegetation and circulation) are displayed on a virtual globe in an intuitive three-dimensional environment and on a continuous time axis throughout the Phanerozoic. The software runs in any web browser — including smartphones — and promotes data exploration, appeals to students and generates public interest.

We also show current work on the next phase of the platform, which aims to develop new tools for integration into a more quantitative research workflow. These include easy online generation and download of maps and time series plots of the underlying monthly model data. The data can also be exported as global fields or CSV files for any user-selected location for further offline analysis, such as use in spreadsheets. Finally, we will discuss and outline future integration of new sources of model and geochemical proxy data to simplify and advance interdisciplinary paleoclimate research.

How to cite: Steinig, S., Alexander, T., Lunt, D., Valdes, P., Duggan, Z., Lee, P., Navratil, J., Offokansi, I., and Swann, M.: “”: 540 million years of climate data at your fingertips, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9361,, 2022.

EGU22-9471 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Timing and pacing of the Hangenberg Crisis (Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary) in the Chanxhe sections, Belgium 

Anne-Christine Da Silva, Léonard Franck, Michiel Arts, and Julien Denayer

The Hangenberg Crisis, at the Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary, severely affected the marine realm. The crisis is characterised by several events associated with change in the sedimentation and biotic extinctions and turnovers. The Hangenberg Black Shale event that recorded the extinction peak in the pelagic realm corresponds to a widespread development of oceanic anoxia and/or dysoxia. The Hangenberg Sandstone event is associated with an extinction of neritic fauna in shallow-water settings, including the final demise of several classical Devonian faunas (stromatoporoids, quasiendothyrid foraminifers, placoderms, etc.). The succession of these events is nowadays explained by a combination of sea level fluctuations (third order transgressive sequence, out-of-sequence regression) and global climatic changes. Through the identification of Milankovitch cycles in the Chanxhe record, we aim at getting a better understanding of the timing and orbital forcing of the different events of the Hangenberg Crisis in shallow-water settings.

The sedimentary record of the interval of interest at Chanxhe is composed of 16 m of alternating decimetre-thick carbonate beds with shaly siltstones, which displays a clear cyclicity. The carbonate-siliciclastic alternations (~0.8 m) are bundled into larger cycles (~5 m) which are separated by intervals dominated by the shaly facies. This is followed by 11 m of carbonate dominated lithology with thin shale layers displaying a less clear cyclicity with ~3 m thick cycles. Then the equivalent of the Hangenberg dark shales is recorded as two dark shaly intervals separated by a carbonate bed. After the Hangenberg dark shales, the section displays carbonates, with the Devonian Carboniferous boundary in massive carbonates 7 m above the top of the black shales.

Samples have been collected along the record every 10 cm which were measured by the portable X-Ray Fluorescence device (Tracer 5, Bruker), allowing to provide elemental data throughout the record. Spectral analysis is applied on Ca and Al, to identify the main cyclicity in the record. The 0.8 meter-thick limestone/shale alternations is clearly recorded in the Ca and Al records and are associated with precession cycles (18 kyr), while the 5 m-cycles are associated with short eccentricity (100 kyr). Prior to the Hangenberg anoxic events, the 100-kyr cycles became less clear and shorter (~ 3 m) which is interpreted as a minimum eccentricity. During the Hangenberg, the cyclicity returns. However, after the Hangenberg and near the Devonian Carboniferous boundary, the facies become very homogeneous, consisting of massively bedded carbonates with no observable cyclicity,  which is also  other contemporaneous sedimentary successions (e.g. China, Poland).   


How to cite: Da Silva, A.-C., Franck, L., Arts, M., and Denayer, J.: Timing and pacing of the Hangenberg Crisis (Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary) in the Chanxhe sections, Belgium, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9471,, 2022.

EGU22-9593 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Aftermath of catastrophic flooding of a desiccated ocean basin 

Udara Amarathunga, Andrew Hogg, Eelco Rohling, Andrew Roberts, Katharine Grant, David Heslop, Pengxiang Hu, Diederik Liebrand, Thomas Westerhold, Xiang Zhao, and Stewart Gilmore

5.33 Million years ago, a mile-high marine cascade terminated the Messinian Salinity Crisis due to partial collapse of the Gibraltar arc/sill that isolated a largely desiccated Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic waters may have refilled the basin within 2 years. Prevailing hypotheses suggest that normal marine conditions were established across the Mediterranean immediately after the catastrophic flooding. Here we use new proxy data and modelling to show that normal conditions were likely for the western Mediterranean (wMed), but that flooding caused massive wMed salt transfer to the eastern Mediterranean (eMed), which became a hyper-salinity-stratified basin. Hyper-stratification inhibited deep-water ventilation, causing anomalously long-lasting organic-rich (sapropel) sediment deposition. Model:data agreement indicates that hyper-stratification breakdown required 26,000 years. Testing an alternative hypothesis—reconnection of a largely refilled Mediterranean—reveals hyper-stratification in both the wMed and eMed, which would have left sapropels in both basins, in disagreement with observations. Our findings offer novel insight into the processes involved in re-establishing normal marine conditions following abrupt refilling of a previously desiccated ocean basin.

How to cite: Amarathunga, U., Hogg, A., Rohling, E., Roberts, A., Grant, K., Heslop, D., Hu, P., Liebrand, D., Westerhold, T., Zhao, X., and Gilmore, S.: Aftermath of catastrophic flooding of a desiccated ocean basin, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9593,, 2022.

EGU22-9745 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Calcareous nannoplankton community composition across multiple early Eocene hyperthermal events at International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1553 (Campbell Plateau, SW Pacific) 

Heather Jones, Bryan Niederbockstruck, and Ursula Röhl and the IODP Expedition 378 Scientists

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rapidly rising leading to warmer oceans, surface ocean acidification, and complex changes in marine biogeochemical cycling. Calcareous nannoplankton: single-celled marine haptophytes, are likely particularly susceptible to such environmental changes, because they form microscopic plates made out of calcium carbonate (calcite). As these organisms lie at the base of the marine food web, it is critical that we understand how they respond to climate change over longer (millennial) timescales so that we can better predict the long-term effects of current and future environmental change on marine communities.

The high CO2 world of the early Eocene (~56 to 48 Ma) is characterized by multiple transient warming events (‘hyperthermals’), and is generally considered to be one of the best geologic analogues for future climate change. Here, we present preliminary, low-resolution calcareous nannoplankton assemblage data from the early Eocene of recently-drilled IODP Site U1553 (Campbell Plateau) in the South Pacific Ocean. Sediment cores recovered from Holes C and D at Site U1553 provide arguably one of the most complete and expanded early Eocene records yet from this relatively understudied region, including many of the previously recognized hyperthermals. This coupled with the high calcium carbonate content of the sediments, makes it an ideal case study for exploring millennial-scale changes in calcareous nannoplankton community composition and morphometry during transient warming events.

Within this presentation, we predominantly focus on the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): the largest and best-studied of the early Eocene hyperthermals. Our results suggest that the turnover in nannoplankton species during this warming event was very similar to that observed at other southern high latitude sites such as Maud Rise. More minor ecological ‘jostling’ appears to have occurred prior to the onset of the PETM and following the event; however, the significance of these smaller changes in community composition have yet to be statistically analyzed at the time of writing. It is our aim to combine our assemblage counts with morphometric data to determine whether calcareous nannoplankton acted as a source or sink of carbon dioxide during the early Eocene hyperthermal events. We will also extend our dataset to include several of the smaller hyperthermals that succeeded the PETM, to elucidate whether calcareous nannoplankton exhibit a scaled or threshold response to warming.

How to cite: Jones, H., Niederbockstruck, B., and Röhl, U. and the IODP Expedition 378 Scientists: Calcareous nannoplankton community composition across multiple early Eocene hyperthermal events at International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1553 (Campbell Plateau, SW Pacific), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9745,, 2022.

EGU22-9934 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Downhole gamma ray data to reconstruct an age-depth model of the terrestrial record at Lake Chalco, Central Mexico 

Mehrdad Sardar Abadi, Christian Zeeden, Arne Ulfers, and Thomas Wonik

Understanding the evolution of lower latitude climate from the most recent glacial periods of the latest Pleistocene to post glacial warmth in the continental tropical regions has been obstructed by a lack of long and continuous time series. Here we examine sediments from Lake Chalco, located in the Valley of Mexico, central Mexico (19°30’N, 99°W). The basin represents a hydrological closed system surrounded by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt aging from the Oligocene to the present. We use borehole logging to conduct a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Lake Chalco sediments, and incorporate other available dating information. More than 400 m of sediments are logged for several geophysical properties including magnetic susceptibility and spectral gamma radiation.

Gamma radiation can be used to identify elemental isotopes in the geological record, which is used for stratigraphic correlation and paleoclimatic investigations. Among the lake deposit of Chalco sub-basin, 388 total tephra layers (≥1 mm in thickness) were reported from the core description. Tephra layers with specific gamma ray signatures, presenting a challenge for extracting the primary signals caused by environmental and climatic agents. Here, we apply a tailored protocol to identify tephra layers embedded in other sediments using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. This facilitates dividing the overall sediment column into representative horizons of tephra and non-tephra.

After extracting the non-volcanic primary signal, we apply a suite of evolutive cyclostratigraphic methods to the Lake Chalco logging data, with a focus on gamma ray data. The high-resolution results suggest that the Lake Chalco sediments contain several rhythmic alterations with a quasi-cyclic pattern comparable with the Pleistocene benthic stack. This allow us to calculate a ~500-kyr time span for the sediment deposition in Lake Chalco. By using cyclostratigraphic analysis on data captured by geophysical downhole logging, we demonstrate the potentially broad applicability of this method for downhole logging data and provide further insight into the sedimentation history of Lake Chalco.



How to cite: Sardar Abadi, M., Zeeden, C., Ulfers, A., and Wonik, T.: Downhole gamma ray data to reconstruct an age-depth model of the terrestrial record at Lake Chalco, Central Mexico, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9934,, 2022.

EGU22-10018 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Persistent ISOW formation during MIS 11 

Jasmin M. Link and Norbert Frank

The deep water formation in the Labrador and Nordic Seas is crucial for the global thermohaline circulation nowadays and it remains debated whether changing boundary conditions in terms of global warming may influence the deep convecting activity. Deep convection leads to the formation of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), which is an essential part of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, surface conditions in the Nordic Seas were unlikely always favorable for the formation of deep water in the past.

During Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, a strong and active AMOC [e.g. 1] was reconstructed, which also contributed to the mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet [2]. However, cold and fresh surface conditions prevailed in the central Nordic Seas [3], which have been ascribed to freshwater input from the higher latitudes [4]. Thus, the question arises, whether and where deep water formation took place in the Nordic Seas.

Here, we reconstruct authigenic neodymium isotopes extracted from deep sea sediment from the Gardar Drift from 470 to 374 ka. IODP Site U1304 is located directly in the modern flow path of ISOW and should therefore sensitively track changes of this water mass in the past. Today, it is characterized by a strongly radiogenic neodymium isotopic composition, which markedly differs from other North Atlantic water masses.

Starting right at the onset and for the full length of the interglacial MIS 11c, a radiogenic Nd isotopic composition is switched on and prevailed indicating the presence of ISOW at the core site. More unradiogenic conditions indicate the return to glacial like conditions during a short event in MIS 11b. However, during MIS 11a the radiogenic values point again to a persistent presence of ISOW.

Thus, although the boundary conditions in terms of freshwater fluxes and sea level were significantly differing in the central Nordic Seas, the deep water formation presumably happened in the southern part of the Nordic Seas. This led to the active formation of ISOW, which in turn helped drive the active and strong AMOC during MIS 11.


[1] Dickson et al. (2009), Nat. Geosci. 2: 428-433.

[2] Rachmayani et al. (2017), Paleoceanography 32: 1089-1101.

[3] Kandiano et al. (2016), GRL 43: 10929-10937.

[4] Doherty and Thibodeau (2018), Front. Mar. Sci. 5: 251.

How to cite: Link, J. M. and Frank, N.: Persistent ISOW formation during MIS 11, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10018,, 2022.

EGU22-10150 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Phanerozoic scale modulation of brachiopod longitudinal expansion fitness forced by plate tectonics 

Andrej Spiridonov, Lauras Balaukauskas, and Shaun Lovejoy

Brachiopods are a phylum of Animalia which are characterized by a rich fossil record. But this record shows drastic decrease in brachiopod diversity and environmental occupancy through time. One set of explanations says that the decline is related to the state shifts in dominance after mass extinction events (usually P-Tr). Another explanatory set suggests that the dominant cause of brachiopod decline is competition with other functionally similar clades. The competition hypothesis predicts that there should be a monotonic decrease in some fitness metric at organismal or species level. Often overlooked is the influence of long-term tectonic processes which control size, geometry and topology of environments on the changes in dominance of brachiopods. Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing the dynamics of longitudinal and latitudinal ranges of brachiopod genera in the post-Cambrian Phanerozoic using the Paleobiology Database global paleogeographic occurrence data. The major pattern revealed in the study is that while latitudinal ranges were approximately constant through the eon, the longitudinal ranges experienced long-term trend-like decline. In the beginning of the Phanerozoic and also during the Cretaceous-Cenozoic, average ranges of brachiopod genera were much more elliptic in the west-east direction, while in the middle of the Phanerozoic they become almost circular in their shape. The latitudinal ranges reflect average temperature tolerance of a genus, while the longitudinal ranges reflect capacity of a genus to expand in similar climatic conditions, thus reflecting its potential of expansion fitness. The scale by scale analysis of range shapes and continental fragmentation index found consistent scale independent positive correlation of ellipticity (in W-E direction) with higher fragmentation of continents. Therefore the analyses revealed statistically significant patterns that support the hypothesis of a strong tectonic control on the shapes and sizes of average geographic ranges of brachiopod genera. Smallest ranges with lowest ellipticity occurred in Triassic-Jurassic. Therefore, the loss of genus level expansion fitness due to tectonic amalgamation of Pangaea should have been an important factor which contributed to the failure of brachiopods to fully recover after P-Tr extinction event.

This study was supported by the project S-MIP-21-9 “The role of spatial structuring in major transitions in macroevolution”.

How to cite: Spiridonov, A., Balaukauskas, L., and Lovejoy, S.: Phanerozoic scale modulation of brachiopod longitudinal expansion fitness forced by plate tectonics, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10150,, 2022.

EGU22-10544 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Continental weathering and climate conditions in southern high latitudes during the Albian-Santonian interval (U1512 and U1513 sites, Exp IODP 369, SW Australia) 

Thomas Munier, Laurent Riquier, François Baudin, Armand Metgalchi, Sidonie Revillon, and Omar Boudouma

The Albian-Santonian interval (113-83 Ma) is considered as a transitional period between the Early Cretaceous times, marked by a succession of short climatic variations associated with volcanism episodes and the Late Cretaceous times, marked by a progressive decrease of temperatures. This 30 Myr-longed interval is characterized by a gradual increase of temperature in oceanic domain, which culminates during the Cretaceous thermal Maximum, at the end of the Turonian (~ 90 Ma). Although the evolutions of continental weathering and climatic conditions are well documented in oceanic domain of low to middle latitudes, especially in Atlantic and Tethyan oceans, their record are less well known in high latitudes, especially in the proto-Indian Ocean. Thanks to the Exp IODP 369, two new boreholes, U1512 and U1513, drilled respectively in the Bight Basin (Southern Australia) and in the Mentelle Basin (Southwestern Australia), provide the opportunity to study the Albian to Santonian deposits at high latitudes (~60°S). Cores of the site U1513 recovered a sedimentary sequence from Albian to Santonian whereas the site U1512 record a continuous sequence from Turonian to Santonian. An integrated study, coupling mineralogical determination (XRD analyse and SEM observation) and isotopic analyses of neodymium on clay fraction was done on both sites in order to determine climatic and weathering conditions in these southern high latitude zone.

Our study reveals that the clay fraction are dominated by smectites (>85% in average) with lower proportions of kaolinites (< 25%) and traces of illites (<5%) associated with opal-CT and clinoptilolites. SEM observations have demonstrated a negligible impact of both burial diagenesis and authigenesis on clay assemblage. They are thus interpreted as the products of the alteration of rocks and pedogenic blankets from adjacent landmasses. At Site U1513, the Albian clay fraction contains noticeable proportions of kaolinites (5 to 25%), which progressively decrease during the Cenomanian and disappear at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (~94 Ma). Turonian to Coniacian deposits are almost exclusively composed of smectites. The decrease in kaolinite proportions is coeval with a decrease in εNd values, which indicates a probable diminution in the erosion of Australian Archean rocks. At Site U1512, clay mineral assemblages, show slight variations along the borehole, which reflects stable weathering conditions during the 10 Myr of the Turonian-Santonian interval.

The dominance of smectites and to a lesser extent of kaolinites seem to indicate a warm to temperate and humid climate for high latitude zone during the Albian-Santonian interval. The decrease in kaolinite proportions from Albian to early Turonian in U1513 reflect probably a decrease of hydrolysis conditions associated with increasing temperatures and sea-level rise in southwestern Australian margins. The absence of noticeable variations from the Turonian to the Santonian in both sites would be the result of a stable continental climate for several million years after the Cretaceous thermal maximum (~ 90 Ma). The persistent presence of kaolinites in U1512 (southern Australia) could be due to the proximity of the Bight Basin with Australian Western Highlands.

How to cite: Munier, T., Riquier, L., Baudin, F., Metgalchi, A., Revillon, S., and Boudouma, O.: Continental weathering and climate conditions in southern high latitudes during the Albian-Santonian interval (U1512 and U1513 sites, Exp IODP 369, SW Australia), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10544,, 2022.

EGU22-11382 | Presentations | SSP2.1

The Coniacian-Santonian Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE3 - global correlation of subevents 

Michael Wagreich and Ahmed Mansour

The Coniacian-Santonian was a time of strong differentiation in marine sedimentation, characterized by organic carbon-rich black shales and dark carbonates interpreted as the last oceanic anoxic event, OAE3, versus organic carbon-poor white/reddish limestones, chalk and claystones known as Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs). Based on compiled geochemical and isotope proxy data, two high-resolution global carbon isotope curves for carbonate and organic matter were reconstructed based on statistical analysis. Three main levels of short amplitude (around 0.5‰) carbon isotope excursions were identified. These excursions, each some 0.4 to 0.7 Ma in duration, were characterized by regionally restricted benthic anoxia and sea-level highstands that controlled regional organic matter accumulation during the OAE3 subevents defined herein as OAE3a (late mid-Coniacian, ca. 86.9 Ma, Kingsdown Event), OAE3b (late mid-Santonian, ca. 85.0 Ma, Horseshoe Bay Event), and OAE3c (late Santonian to Santonian-Campanian Boundary Event, ca. 83.5 Ma). Based on a compilation oxygen isotope temperature data and reconstructed pCO2 trends, the Coniacian-Santonian was characterized by: 1) a steady state phase of warm greenhouse climate during the Coniacian, followed by (2) a hot greenhouse during the early Santonian that might be consistent with activation of the Central Kerguelen large igneous province, and (3) a longer-term cooling of the warm greenhouse climate from the mid-Santonian onwards. Organic matter-rich deposition is largely restricted to the low-latitude Atlantic and adjacent epeiric and shelf seas. Areas of enhanced oceanic circulation systems with a westwards directed Tethyan current and regional eddies of water mass flow had a negative feedback resulted in well-developed water column oxygen content within the Tethys.

How to cite: Wagreich, M. and Mansour, A.: The Coniacian-Santonian Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE3 - global correlation of subevents, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11382,, 2022.

EGU22-11752 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Size and abundance variations of Schizosphaerella across the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event 

Giulia Faucher, Stefano Visentin, Gabriele Gambacorta, and Elisabetta Erba

The Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE), dated as early Toarcian is considered one of the most extreme paleoenvironmental perturbations in Earth’s history. It is characterized by global warming, accelerated weathering, sea level rise, oceanic anoxia and acidification and extensive accumulation of organic matter. In Jurassic times, calcareous nannoplankton was already a most efficient rock-forming group and therefore pelagic sedimentary successions preserve invaluable data to track changes across the T-OAE. In this work, we focus on Schizosphaerella across the T-OAE recovered in the uppermost Pliensbachian–lower Toarcian Sogno Core that consists of a fully pelagic, continuous, well-dated record from a deep plateau (~1500 m water depth) in the Lombardy Basin (northern Italy). The objective of this investigation is the quantification of changes in size and abundance of the micrite-forming schizosphaerellids to derive their biocalcification tempo and mode in response to the T-OAE perturbations, to assess the implications of Schizosphaerella biocalcification changes, in terms of abundance and size, for the pelagic carbonate sedimentation. Absolute abundances and morphometric changes obtained for small Schizosphaerella punctulata” (valve width < 7 μm),  S. punctulata (valve width > 7 μm) and “encrusted S. punctulata” (all specimens characterized by a crust surrounding the valve) revealed large fluctuations in the investigated interval. We identify an abundance fall caused by the failure of S. punctulata and “encrusted S. punctulata” during the core of the T-OAE, that along with the increased abundance of small specimens produced the reduction of average dimensions. Thus, the average size decline is not the result of a general valve reduction, but rather derives from the increase in abundance of small specimens (< 7 μm). This is substantiated by absolute abundances of individual S. punctulata morphogroups that unambiguously demonstrate that such a pattern is not an artefact of relative abundances (closed sum problem).

We hypothesize that the concomitant drop in abundance and shrinkage of valve size is related to hyperthermal conditions associated with excess CO2 and ocean acidification.

Finally, the co-occurrence in the same samples of S. punctulata specimens (> 7 mm) with and without a crust, is indicative of species-specific diagenetic effects. Based on the S. punctulata ultrastructure we conclude that specimens without diagenetic crusts belongs to S. astrea while encrusted specimens are attributable to S. punctulata and we infer that the presence of the diagenetic crust could be taxonomically diagnostic to distinguish S. punctulata from S. astrea.

How to cite: Faucher, G., Visentin, S., Gambacorta, G., and Erba, E.: Size and abundance variations of Schizosphaerella across the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11752,, 2022.

EGU22-11783 | Presentations | SSP2.1

A way-out from the maze of middle Miocene Sphaeroidinellopsis (planktonic foraminifera) 

Alessio Fabbrini, Ilaria Zaminiga, Thomas Ezard, and Bridget Wade

The taxonomy and phylogeny of the Miocene to Recent genus Sphaeroidinellopsis have been documented in previous studies, but the evolution of this lineage remains unclear. Some authors debated this genus in the past, choosing a variety of parameters to discriminate between morphospecies. Here we present new high detail analyses of specimens from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 925 (Ceara Rise, western equatorial Atlantic) and ODP Site 959 (Deep Ivorian Basin, eastern equatorial Atlantic). We present transitional individuals Sphaeroidinellopsis disjuncta–Sphaeroidinellopsis kochi, a speciation event never described before. These transitional specimens are characterized by extreme morphological features such as elongated and sac-like final chambers, requiring amendments to the current classification and taxonomy of these morphospecies. An alternative hypothesis is presented to assess these new observations within the evolutionary mosaic of Sphaeroidinellopsis.

How to cite: Fabbrini, A., Zaminiga, I., Ezard, T., and Wade, B.: A way-out from the maze of middle Miocene Sphaeroidinellopsis (planktonic foraminifera), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11783,, 2022.

EGU22-11890 | Presentations | SSP2.1

Integrated calcareous plankton biostratigraphy and stable isotopes stratigraphy of Cenomanian-Turonian interval of Breonio and Quero sections (central-western Tethys) 

Michela Simonato, Silvia Gardin, Luca Giusberti, Valeria Luciani, Nereo Preto, Guido Roghi, Simone Barbieri, Federico Xausa, and Eliana Fornaciari

The late Cenomanian-Turonian interval is characterized by major changes in the global carbon cycle, identified by stable carbon isotope excursions with associated climatic variations (e.g., OAE2, Late Turonian Events). These changes are linked to significant paleoceanographic modifications that impacted the biota, especially primary producers (e.g., calcareous plankton), forcing extinctions and evolutionary radiations. A reliable biostratigraphy is an essential tool to correlate both environmental and biotic changes worldwide.

Calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifera are well recognized as useful markers for biostratigraphy and paleoecological studies. However, the Cenomanian-Turonian calcareous nannofossil biohorizons are still poorly constrained because the nannofossil assemblages suffer from marked provincialism and taxonomic uncertainty that can blur their biochronological potential.

In order to improve the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic scheme of the late Cenomanian-Turonian interval, we present new data from the Breonio section (northeastern Italy), in the southwestern part of the Trento Plateau, and from the Quero section (northeastern Italy), located in the western Belluno Basin (central-western Tethys).

The analyses of calcareous nannofossil and planktic foraminiferal assemblages were integrated with the δ13C, δ18O and CaCO3 curves. The δ13C values highlight several positive, global, stable carbon isotope shifts in both sections. The CaCO3 signal of the Quero section suggests that the isotopic signal is pristine because the CaCO3 values are not coupled with δ13C isotope shifts. On the contrary CaCO3 curve seems generally to reflect the lithological signal. On the basis of biostratigraphic data the detected positive shifts have been correlated with the late Cenomanian-Turonian events, specifically, the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Holywell, Round down, Pewsey, and Late Turonian Events 1, 2, 3. The stratigraphic position of biohorizons with respect to the globally recognized δ13C excursions can provide a valuable mean to evaluate their potential synchronism/diachronism.

Our preliminary data show a good correspondence with the recent calcareous nannofossil-planktic foraminiferal integrated scheme (Geologic Time scale 2020; Gale et al. 2020) for the late Cenomanian-Turonian interval, althoug